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GLOBAL POULTRY TRENDS 2014: Europe's Chicken Exports Double

08 October 2014

Global Poultry Trends 2014

Exports of fresh/frozen chicken from European countries almost doubled between 2000 and 2011 to reach 3.5 million tonnes in the latter year, according to industry analyst, Terry Evans.

Growing world demand has resulted in a rapid expansion in the trade in chicken meat. Data for every country is currently only available to 2011 when global exports of fresh/frozen chicken amounted to some 12.5 million tonnes (Table 1, Figure 1).

However, alongside this is a growing trade in prepared/processed chicken meat the annual total having increased from around 600,000 tonnes back in 2000 to almost two million tonnes in 2011 (Table 2). The latter figure is equivalent to around 2.9 million tonnes eviscerated weight making the world total trade for all forms of chicken meat of around 15.5 million tonnes.

Table 1. World trade in fresh/frozen chicken meat ('000 tonnes)
 2000200520072008200920102011
EXPORTS
Africa 9.5 4.8 6.5 9.5 46.2 61.5 56.2
Americas 3,627.4 5,516.0 6,366.4 7,311.6 7,234.9 7,252.7 7,530.4
Asia 1,432.2 420.6 639.1 765.8 876.2 1,187.7 1,373.1
Europe 1,805.1 2,137.3 2,302.6 2,344.7 2,592.1 3,115.7 3,477.8
Oceania 14.3 21.8 28.2 31.0 33.3 29.2 32.8
World 6,888.4 8,100.6 9,342.9 10,462.6 10,782.7 11,646.8 12,470.2
IMPORTS
Africa 259.0 512.9 673.6 717.8 861.2 1,065.5 1,254.4
Americas 556.0 910.5 1,132.3 1,373.7 1,380.3 1,416.6 1,509.8
Asia 3,276.7 2,767.2 3,654.0 4,274.9 4,670.9 5,021.5 5,780.0
Europe 1,811.2 3,223.6 3,171.0 3,374.2 3,095.0 2,879.7 2,790.3
Oceania 26.4 35.5 35.6 37.9 42.6 47.0 57.0
World 5,929.3 7,449.8 8,666.5 9,778.5 10,050.0 10,430.4 11,391.5
Source: FAO
5m Publishing
Figure 1. Global exports of fresh/frozen chicken continue to climb ('000 tonnes)
Table 2. World trade in prepared/processed chicken meat ('000 tonnes)
 2000200520072008200920102011
EXPORTS
Africa 1.8 2.1 3.3 1.4 1.0 0.8 0.7
Americas 92.9 270.2 381.9 427.1 418.5 427.6 424.8
Asia 212.4 515.8 606.5 599.3 603.0 700.8 814.6
Europe 260.8 432.7 551.9 635.0 680.3 694.8 746.3
Oceania 2.2 1.8 0.6 1.0 1.8 2.9 3.4
World 570.1 1,222.6 1,544.2 1,663.8 1,704.5 1,827.0 1,989.7
IMPORTS
Africa 1.9 7.0 8.7 8.9 7.3 7.7 10.7
Americas 67.8 90.6 119.4 127.4 122.4 137.0 154.8
Asia 186.7 389.6 448.3 412.6 429.4 538.2 648.9
Europe 304.3 677.6 804.1 932.2 948.0 1,009.2 1,075.0
Oceania 1.3 2.0 3.2 4.1 5.4 8.9 10.0
World 561.8 1,166.8 1,383.6 1,485.2 1,512.4 1,701.0 1,899.4
Source: FAO

Chicken Meat Exports from the EU

Although exports of fresh/frozen chicken from European countries almost doubled between 2000 and 2011 to reach 3.5 million tonnes in the latter year, it only represents just over a quarter of the global business (Table 1). The bulk of Europe’s trade is conducted between EU member countries as, of the near 3.4 million tonnes exported by EU nations in 2011, only 30 per cent was sold to countries outside the Community (Table 3).

Table 3. Exports of fresh/frozen and processed chicken meat from European countries
(tonnes)
Country2000200520072008200920102011
FRESH/FROZEN CHICKEN
Albania 2 0 0 5 0 0 0
Austria 4,268 18,318 25,358 25,976 29,400 30,867 26,376
Belarus 6,000 9,914 7,142 5,801 20,457 37,692 73,605
Belgium 268,551 313,233 310,800 316,996 344,015 385,188 407,928
Bosnia/Herzegovina 30 17 279 579 1,597 3,763 4,724
Bulgaria 4,988 7,832 10,631 9,379 23,499 37,861 39,470
Croatia 1,340 2,947 2,179 2,690 2,705 2,764 3,738
Czech Rep. 4,536 21,926 18,452 18,121 19,089 22,194 21,988
Denmark 107,403 102,357 86,385 77,152 83,715 84,915 72,507
Estonia 18,307 2,985 1,400 2,950 3,526 4,664 7,332
Finland 1,503 7,662 8,748 9,656 9,375 8,576 9,422
France 415,059 355,783 326,154 342,688 348,464 381,245 426,133
Germany 97,883 166,775 211,631 206,392 251,493 269,292 287,543
Greece 5,485 7,331 11,989 12,345 11,344 11,754 16,657
Hungary 38,380 32,561 21,176 35,391 35,735 57,841 81,178
Iceland 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Ireland 17,855 14,225 18,758 16,910 22,291 38,824 53,406
Italy 28,874 62,593 50,708 53,514 55,704 86,232 86,759
Latvia 109 1,224 3,308 3,374 4,373 6,385 7,285
Lithuania 1,009 10,874 14,805 13,801 16,587 21,273 27,025
Luxembourg 470 154 226 309 275 255 299
Macedonia Rep. 93 134 127 57 49 10 79
Malta 1 1 5 8 0 0 41
Moldova 62 84 45 27 0 126 0
Montenegro - - 10 21 21 4 0
Netherlands 581,063 624,280 695,781 683,728 731,750 878,132 995,945
Norway 41 70 8 24 60 4 25
Poland 30,539 101,737 139,954 153,293 214,688 285,852 303,732
Portugal 1,108 2,018 5,775 3,638 5,158 7,279 10,329
Romania 802 2,573 1,655 8,906 29,767 54,652 73,182
Russian Federation 2,440 189 430 2,395 3,386 5,293 1,087
Serbia - - 2,131 1,566 1,689 2,130 2,505
Slovakia 1,383 11,944 16,096 15,564 14,666 26,768 22,972
Slovenia 1,322 7,265 12,039 13,592 12,191 15,170 15,101
Spain 48,345 53,753 51,971 72,072 65,163 95,609 113,769
Sweden 4,999 11,168 14,470 9,930 8,765 10,759 9,956
Switzerland 270 640 104 11 93 172 563
Ukraine 810 101 4,941 7,860 18,881 26,877 49,711
United Kingdom 109,337 181,462 226,959 217,976 202,140 215,292 225,420
European Union 1,795,202 2,125,049 2,288,024 2,327,313 2,546,836 3,040,948 3,346,512
EU excl. internal 703,248 654,152 577,018 665,934 705,423 892,736 1,012,819
Europe 1,805,133 2,137,341 2,302,630 2,344,698 2,592,111 3,115,714 3,477,792
PROCESSED CHICKEN MEAT
European Union 258,872 410,178 546,824 628,440 676,531 691,278 743,027
EU excl. internal 31,234 32,339 34,563 43,336 44,568 44,851 48,152
Europe 260,781 432,692 551,909 635,024 680,261 694,831 746,320
- no figure
Source: FAO

The Netherlands is easily the leading exporter (Table 4 and Figure 2), selling almost one million tonnes in 2011, more than a quarter of which went to Germany.

Table 4. Leading chicken meat exporters in Europe ('000 tonnes)
Country2000200520072008200920102011
Netherlands 581.1 624.3 695.8 683.7 731.8 878.1 996.0
France 415.1 355.8 326.2 342.7 348.5 381.3 426.1
Belgium 268.6 313.2 310.8 317.0 344.0 385.2 407.9
Poland 30.5 101.7 140.0 153.3 214.7 285.9 303.7
Germany 97.9 166.8 211.6 206.4 251.5 269.3 287.5
United Kingdom 109.3 181.5 227.0 218.0 202.1 215.3 225.4
Spain 48.4 53.8 52.0 72.1 65.2 95.6 113.8
Source: FAO
5m Publishing
Figure 2. Leading chicken meat exporters in Europe ('000 tonnes)

Because this FAO series has yet to be advanced beyond 2011, the emergence of Ukraine as a major player is not evident. However, data collected by the USDA reveals that from the low level of 23,000 tonnes in 2010, Ukraine’s broiler meat exports escalated to 141,000 tonnes in 2013, while the estimate for 2014 is a massive 190,000 tonnes (Figure 3).

5m Publishing
Figure 3. Ukraine's broiler meat exports took off in 2009 ('000 tonnes)

In 2010 and 2011, EU chicken exports to third countries expanded dramatically to exceed one million tonnes (Table 3). However, the growth in this trade in 2012 and 2013 was much slower as a strong demand from African countries (mainly South Africa and Benin) and in the Middle East, (especially Saudi Arabia), was offset by lower shipments to Hong Kong and Russia. The European Commission considers that EU poultry meat exports to third countries could reach 1.4 million tonnes by 2023 as a result of increased purchases by Saudi Arabia and China.

According to a USDA FAS Gain report, EU broiler meat exports will decline a little in 2014 as a result of the impact of the suspension of EU poultry meat export restitutions on sales from France to the Middle East which will not be fully offset by increased exports of broiler parts from the Benelux, France and Poland to South Africa, Benin and Ghana.

The FAO data on imports of fresh/frozen chicken (Table 5) reveal that in 2011 the EU accounted for 2.2 million tonnes or 80 per cent of the total bought by European countries.

Table 5. Imports of fresh/frozen and processed chicken meat into European countries
(tonnes)
Country2000200520072008200920102011
FRESH/FROZEN CHICKEN MEAT
Albania 10,119 16,986 13,883 18,412 17,893 18,668 22,201
Austria 12,908 29,184 30,696 30,557 33,025 37,873 35,018
Belarus 18,000 16,762 10,130 6,794 8,594 6,728 11,356
Belgium 60,227 84,042 89,698 97,667 95,921 105,214 132,240
Bosnia/Herzegovina 8,400 10,452 8,347 11,359 11,570 11,539 12,911
Bulgaria 22,000 15,857 22,209 33,615 47,001 60,333 83,880
Croatia 1,518 3,367 8,530 9,935 12,195 11,071 11,127
Czech Rep. 9,478 40,617 35,018 43,307 52,325 57,192 66,452
Denmark 7,936 22,991 24,161 24,410 26,506 32,908 35,105
Estonia 32,744 10,134 12,589 12,210 13,359 15,968 15,500
Faroe Isl. 320 294 358 221 429 454 449
Finland 1,329 3,351 3,406 3,794 3,915 3,878 3,069
France 124,247 180,628 213,282 230,153 256,076 292,493 317,514
Germany 195,432 221,030 241,690 216,017 261,762 299,075 320,551
Greece 27,920 34,666 35,853 40,941 40,213 39,686 41,564
Hungary 18,321 27,569 21,786 25,195 22,482 19,804 27,976
Iceland 12 29 158 337 224 250 467
Ireland 47,924 39,472 42,563 46,244 40,538 40,241 45,558
Italy 37,636 14,540 22,140 22,393 26,621 30,384 39,586
Latvia 17,177 25,698 25,863 24,147 21,717 23,255 23,290
Lithuania 9,524 27,018 28,040 26,109 19,258 15,500 18,619
Luxembourg 4,740 4,986 5,074 5,667 5,349 5,757 8,012
Macedonia Rep. 18,734 21,487 30,837 25,410 28,783 30,340 30,364
Malta 64 3,766 4,209 3,890 4,657 4,582 4,876
Moldova 4,636 45,420 12,207 20,543 7,250 13,883 12,356
Montenegro - - 1,871 3,564 3,581 4,758 4,350
Netherlands 111,268 271,190 232,315 408,035 309,557 308,155 355,311
Norway 89 252 139 212 579 52 45
Poland 12,793 43,414 33,493 16,419 17,572 17,337 14,886
Portugal 5,560 12,843 16,654 15,199 21,137 24,264 25,184
Romania 22,399 138,760 100,135 86,430 98,828 69,055 63,817
Russian Federation 580,099 1,203,984 1,203,650 1,139,102 911,954 602,850 384,169
Serbia - - 130 25 167 949 3,131
Slovakia 4,169 18,986 21,205 25,850 26,022 34,088 31,518
Slovenia 4,022 4,300 5,219 5,716 5,431 6,957 8,062
Spain 53,766 81,177 79,584 79,845 86,323 97,176 88,447
Sweden 13,088 29,620 31,992 34,309 34,604 36,850 33,506
Switzerland 23,044 27,490 32,498 35,072 37,024 34,916 35,453
Ukraine 25,987 133,688 130,502 248,600 180,263 122,834 50,770
United Kingdom 259,132 352,550 338,838 296,503 304,254 342,373 371,557
European Union 1,117,357 1,743,552 1,729,645 1,869,140 1,891,390 2,037,222 2,228,183
EU excl. internal 172,161 366,926 154,630 154,867 158,849 127,956 126,806
Europe 1,811,227 3,223,614 3,170,952 3,374,208 3,094,959 2,879,700 2,790,247
PROCESSED CHICKEN MEAT
European Union 290,668 629,623 765,567 897,418 918,426 978,801 1,044,110
EU excl. internal 87,442 304,125 350,687 421,426 432,568 431,594 444,355
Europe 304,268 677,625 804,076 932,225 947,963 1,009,188 1,074,992
- no figure
Source: FAO

Almost all the purchases by EU countries are from fellow member states. However, the quantities imported by non-EU European countries declined over the review period from around 700,000 tonnes a year to some 560,000 tonnes, having peaked at 1.5 million tonnes in 2008.

In 2011, five countries (Table 6 and Figure 4), the Russian Federation, the UK, Netherlands, Germany and France imported more than 300,000 tonnes. However, according to USDA data, the significant change in this business has been the halving of purchases by the Russian Federation (Figure 5) from a peak of more than 1.2 million tonnes from the late 1990s until 2008 to the current level of around 550,000 tonnes.

Table 6. Leading importers of fresh/frozen chicken in Europe ('000 tonnes)
Country2000200520072008200920102011
Russian Federation 580.1 1,204.0 1,203.7 1,139.1 912.0 602.9 384.2
United Kingdom 259.1 352.6 338.8 296.5 304.3 342.4 371.6
Netherlands 111.3 271.2 232.3 408.0 309.6 308.2 355.3
Germany 195.4 221.0 241.7 216.0 261.8 299.1 320.6
France 124.3 180.6 213.3 230.2 256.1 292.5 317.5
Belgium 60.2 84.0 89.7 97.7 95.9 105.2 132.2
Source: FAO
5m Publishing
Figure 4. Leading chicken meat importers in Europe ('000 tonnes)
5m Publishing
Figure 5. Russia's broiler imports have halved since 2009 ('000 tonnes)

This decline is expected to continue with a USDA forecast of around 133,000 tonnes in 2023. The ban on imports into Russia from the US in particular might cut the 2014 estimate although there is the possibility that the reduction in purchases from this source could be made good by increased business with other countries especially Brazil and Argentina.

Brazil and Thailand remain the largest suppliers of chicken to the EU followed by Chile and China. After a small decline in 2013 due to reduced shipments from Brazil and Thailand, imports are expected to remain “flat” in 2014.

World trade in prepared/processed chicken meat has more than trebled since 2000 to the 2011 level of around two million tonnes (Table 2). In 2011 Europe shipping 750,000 tonnes was the second largest exporter behind Asia. The Netherlands and Germany were the major exporters each selling around 170,000 tonnes in 2011, followed by France and Belgium with some 55,000 tonnes, while the UK, Denmark, Ireland and Poland exported between 40,000 and 45,000 tonnes.

As with fresh/frozen chicken exports, the bulk of sales are to fellow EU member states. For both the Netherlands and Germany this accounted for more than 95 per cent of the business.

EU Chicken Meat Imports

Regarding imports, European countries purchase more than one million tonnes of prepared or processed chicken a year. As can be seen from above most of this trade is from EU countries.

The major third-country suppliers are Brazil and Thailand each of these supplying around 200,000 tonnes in 2011.

A total of some 170,000 tonnes (82 per cent), of Brazil’s shipments went to the Netherlands and Germany, though a further near 22,000 tonnes (11 per cent) was bought by the UK. The same three countries were Thailand’s biggest customers although, in this instance, the UK took the number one spot with 135,000 tonnes (66 per cent) followed by the Netherlands with 32,000 tonnes and Germany with almost 16,000 tonnes.

The opening of the EU market to Thai uncooked meat originally led to a significant increase in purchases of Thai salted and frozen cuts and parts to the detriment of Brazilian exports during the second half of 2012. This trend was expected to continue, though there is the possibility that exports of Thai cooked products to the EU could decline in the face of increased sales of uncooked products.

The latest data appear to indicate that the economic crisis in the EU has resulted in a decline in receipts of prepared, preserved and processed parts.

Further Reading

You can view the previous part in this series on European chicken production by clicking here.

October 2014

 



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