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GLOBAL POULTRY TRENDS: Significant Chicken Trade in Some Countries of Africa and Oceania

26 November 2014

Global Poultry Trends 2014

Africa and Oceania are the two regions that trade the lowest volumes of chicken meat, according to industry analyst, Terry Evans. However, within those areas, South Africa and Benin export significant volumes and Angola is a leading importer within Africa. In Oceania, Australia is the main exporter while French Polynesia and Samoa lead the league table of chicken meat importers.

Angola Set to Become Biggest Chicken Importer in Africa

As economic conditions improve throughout Africa, so the demand for animal protein will rise. However, doubts have been expressed about the region’s ability to meet this growing demand, in which case increased imports are envisaged.

This concern is underlined by the data presented in Table 1, which show that imports of fresh/frozen chicken into African countries increased almost five-fold between 2000 and 2011 when they totalled 1.25 million tonnes.

Table 1. World trade in fresh/frozen chicken meat ('000 tonnes)
 2000200620072008200920102011
EXPORTS
Africa 9.5 3.0 6.5 9.5 46.2 61.5 56.2
Americas 3,627.4 5,445.3 6,366.4 7,311.6 7,234.9 7,252.7 7,530.4
Asia 1,432.2 482.9 639.1 765.8 876.2 1,187.7 1,373.1
Europe 1,805.1 2,157.6 2,302.6 2,344.7 2,592.1 3,115.7 3,477.8
Oceania 14.3 20.7 28.2 31.0 33.3 29.2 32.8
World 6,888.4 8,109.5 9,342.9 10,462.6 10,782.7 11,646.8 12,470.2
IMPORTS
Africa 259.0 612.3 673.6 717.8 861.2 1,065.5 1,254.4
Americas 556.0 1,033.4 1,132.3 1,373.7 1,380.3 1,416.6 1,509.8
Asia 3,276.7 2,976.2 3,654.0 4,274.9 4,670.9 5,021.5 5,780.0
Europe 1,811.2 3,094.2 3,171.0 3,374.2 3,095.0 2,879.7 2,790.3
Oceania 26.4 32.0 35.6 37.9 42.6 47.0 57.0
World 5,929.3 7,748.4 8,666.5 9,778.5 10,050.0 10,430.4 11,391.5
Source: FAO

Up until 2011, South Africa was the biggest importer of fresh/frozen chicken in the region. In this instance, the increase was not the result of the inability of domestic producers to meet the growing demand but because of a significant rise in relatively low-priced imports. In broad terms, imports currently account for around 18 per cent of the South African market. According to the South African Poultry Association (SAPA) the local industry is competitive in the production of whole birds and would support a lowering in the tariff applicable to imported whole birds, provided more severe tariffs and anti-dumping measures are applied to imports of chicken portions.

Having peaked at some 371,000 tonnes in 2012, South Africa's frozen broiler imports declined to 355,000 tonnes in 2013 while, according to USDA forecasts, this year will witness a further contraction to around 340,000 tonnes. Of the total in 2013, whole bone-in broiler portions accounted for 41 per cent and MDM (Mechanically Deboned Meat) 40 per cent. The remainder comprises whole birds, boneless portions and offal.

There has been a major change in the sources of supplies with recent years, seeing a big increase in shipments from the European Union, which enjoys a free-trade agreement with South Africa. Imports from this source accounted for 42 per cent of the total in 2013. In 2013, the EU is considered to have supplied nearly 150,000 tonnes of South Africa’s frozen broiler imports compared with little more than 4,000 tonnes back in 2009. The Netherlands was the leading supplier here, accounting for 45 per cent, followed by the UK with 26 per cent, Germany 15 per cent and Denmark five per cent. Some 79 per cent of this trade was bone-in portions.

Excluding receipts from the EU, Brazil accounted for 82 per cent of the remaining import business supplying almost 170,000 tonnes compared with about 190,000 tonnes in 2012. Some 72 per cent of the quantity from Brazil was MDM meat. SAPA contends that Brazil remains a threat due to its exchange rate dynamics and its competitive advantages in terms of climate, feed costs, economies of scale and government support.

The US is broadly excluded from the South African market by anti-dumping duties and technical trade barriers, hence is has tended to supply only niche markets with MDM meat and livers, worth some $3 million which is less than one per cent of South Africa’s total poultry meat imports. Some reports indicate that South Africa is considering the introduction of tariff rate quotas on US chicken in exchange for South Africa’s continued participation in the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) preferential trade scheme, which allows almost 95 per cent of South Africa’s exports into the US at zero or greatly reduced tariffs.

In July 2014, it was reported that preliminary anti-dumping duties on imports of frozen bone-in chicken from Germany, the Netherlands and the UK had improved the situation in South Africa’s domestic market.

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Figure 1. Leading chicken meat importers in Africa ('000 tonnes)

According to USDA data this year, Angola will become Africa’s largest chicken meat importer (Figure 1), purchases having risen rapidly from less than 50,000 tonnes in 2000 to an estimated 350,000 tonnes for 2014. Of the 290,000 tonnes bought in 2011, some 164,000 tonnes came from the US and almost 100,000 tonnes from Brazil.

One of the most dramatic changes in the import scene in this region has been the growth in purchases by Ghana. Back in 2000, the volume imported was a mere 12,000 tonnes but since 2010, the quantity has jumped from 109,000 tonnes to an estimated almost 200,000 tonnes for 2014 (Table 2, Figure 1). In 2011, the most recent year showing a breakdown of Ghana’s imports, the USA supplied nearly 43,500 tonnes, Belgium 42,500 tonnes and Brazil 41,500 tonnes.

Table 2. Imports of fresh/frozen chicken meat by African countries (tonnes)
Country2000200620072008200920102011
Angola 47,300 128,969 137,543 170,612 160,770 238,357 286,761
Benin 33,030 28,875 35,270 60,602 75,791 78,070 104,164
Botswana 54 288 615 2,331 2,768 4,260 3,658
Burkina Faso 0 0 0 0 4 14 5
Burundi 0 195 5 0 0 15 11
Cameroon 13,481 2,952 2,862 148 17 45 124
Cape Verde 1,447 4,804 5,729 5,889 6,534 7,046 7,050
Central African Rep. 0 46 63 82 163 192 256
Chad 9 26 24 30 30 74 65
Comoros 932 4,794 5,748 5,596 6,805 10,923 8,017
Congo 8,959 22,732 27,670 25,641 50,936 22,187 79,200
Congo Dem. Rep. 11,800 42,996 52,034 52,452 64,672 58,348 66,384
Cote d'Ivoire 1,381 597 806 832 804 697 945
Djibouti 420 6,184 5,786 6,214 4,330 1,348 714
Egypt 4,000 10,105 9,037 20,900 56,164 126,041 34,731
Equatorial Guinea 3,800 8,097 12,216 12,615 14,415 13,917 20,178
Ethiopia 1 1 1 2 0 0 1
Gabon 13,399 22,639 32,624 30,410 44,357 43,686 54,901
Gambia 1,790 4,327 6,250 2,475 4,197 3,558 5,682
Ghana 13,865 51,403 75,373 71,731 78,837 109,179 155,056
Guinea 798 2,336 2,187 3,106 3,100 5,569 8,202
Guinea-Bissau 430 708 744 1,029 979 1,208 1,450
Kenya 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Lesotho 4,600 5,300 5,400 5,400 5,500 5,500 5,500
Liberia 2,700 3,752 6,219 7,719 6,481 11,441 20,397
Libyan Arab Jam 651 0 60 0 0 0 6
Madagascar 0 0 0 101 0 161 553
Malawi 0 0 0 8 33 3 4
Mali 7 25 96 130 130 27 27
Mauritania 2,786 2,689 6,267 5,423 8,818 7,306 11,377
Mauritius 2 204 195 190 124 146 117
Morocco 395 282 327 530 160 364 412
Mozambique 2,900 10,812 8,461 9,199 12,605 9,748 12,797
Namibia 16,909 10,853 10,644 26,936 3,606 3,245 9,970
Niger 10 1 1 1 1 118 298
Nigeria 0 145 2,972 600 32,837 45,032 1,009
Rwanda 0 0 0 1 4 2 9
Sao Tome/Principe 0 322 489 721 680 1,145 1,131
Senegal 413 82 230 1,100 1 0 0
Seychelles 329 1,034 1,137 988 1,548 1,767 2,691
Sierra Leone 1,189 1,908 3,632 4,141 3,838 6,421 8,840
South Africa 66,577 228,068 210,153 169,013 184,522 219,638 298,560
Sudan 0 450 262 677 835 1,623 3,627
Swaziland 592 179 105 28 21 21 21
Tanzania Un. Rep. 74 31 2 1 0 72 786
Togo 1,829 2,845 2,636 11,559 6,876 6,715 8,972
Tunisia 71 95 1,583 132 1,102 2,599 2,529
Uganda 13 0 1 2 7 17 351
Zambia 1 1 1 1 0 558 967
Zimbabwe 24 143 133 655 15,803 17,123 25,905
AFRICA 258,970 612,295 673,596 717,773 861,205 1,065,526 1,254,411
Source: FAO

Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo are expected to import less chicken this year than two years ago but compared with 2000, the quantities are substantially higher.

Table 3. Leading chicken meat importers in Africa ('000 tonnes)
 2000200520062007200820092010201120122013E2014F
South Africa 72 189 260 239 191 206 240 326 371 355 340
Angola 49 103 130 138 171 161 239 287 301 321 350
Ghana 12 51 57 75 72 79 109 155 158 177 195
Benin 40 29 29 46 67 77 98 104 124 118 115
Congo 21 29 23 28 56 58 84 77 94 84 90
Dem. Rep. Congo 15 38 43 51 39 47 60 67 69 62 65
E = estimate; F = forecast
Source: USDA

African countries are not heavily involved in exporting chicken meat, the total amounting to around 50,000 to 60,000 tonnes a year in 2010/2011 (Table 4).

Since 2009, the major player appears to have been Benin, selling between 30,000 and 42,000 tonnes a year, the main recipient being Nigeria.

Until recently, shipments from South Africa were small. However, 2012 witnessed a massive 80 per cent rise in this country’s poultry exports, of which chicken accounted for more than 23,000 tonnes. The main destinations were Mozambique (37 per cent), Lesotho (21 per cent), with Zimbabwe and Namibia each taking nine per cent.

Table 4. Exports of fresh/frozen chicken meat from African countries (tonnes)
Country2000200620072008200920102011
Algeria 0 3 11 0 0 6 33
Benin 722 26 2,850 4 30,340 41,807 41,807
Botswana 0 10 60 220 1 8 26
Burundi 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
Cameroon 1 5 0 0 1 1 0
Cape Verde 1 7 7 5 0 0 0
Chad 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Congo 0 5 0 0 0 0 0
Cote d'Ivoire 2 2 4 3 20 17 12
Egypt 458 94 32 206 1,928 1,928 2,165
Ethiopia 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Gabon 6 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ghana 14 0 0 0 18 0 0
Kenya 6 15 20 185 29 50 50
Malawi 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Mali 0 25 1 0 0 84 84
Mauritania 0 0 0 0 0 28 0
Mauritius 10 2 0 0 0 1 92
Morocco 27 0 0 1,800 32 34 34
Namibia 122 676 1,655 4,204 455 283 283
Senegal 2 228 38 1 1 1 0
Seychelles 0 44 56 26 26 26 26
South Africa 6,393 1,773 1,714 2,319 11,802 14,708 6,789
Swaziland 250 33 0 0 0 0 0
Tanzania Un. Rep. 160 0 0 0 0 0 1
Togo 175 24 0 0 307 248 138
Tunisia 0 0 76 393 1,173 2,228 4,524
Uganda 0 0 10 0 3 3 3
Zambia 46 1 1 31 22 8 50
Zimbabwe 1,116 0 0 51 0 5 0
AFRICA 9,511 2,975 6,535 9,502 46,210 61,526 56,171
Source: FAO

Oceania Imports More Chicken

Imports of fresh/frozen chickens into Oceania more than doubled between 2000 and 2011 to reach 57,000 tonnes (Table 5). In the latter year, French Polynesia was the major buyer taking almost 14,000 tonnes – of which 11,800 tonnes came from the US – followed by Samoa with nearly 11,000 tonnes and Tonga 9,500 tonnes.

Table 5. Imports of fresh/frozen chicken meat by countries in Oceania (tonnes)
Country2000200620072008200920102011
American Samoa 1,600 25 45 0 0 0 0
Australia 0 19 1 0 0 41 12
Cook Isl. 520 784 857 729 637 878 1,538
Fiji 707 1,948 1,082 1,408 1,116 1,419 1,137
French Polynesia 9,912 11,412 12,076 11,888 12,312 12,755 13,763
Guam 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Kiribati 570 1,008 957 757 762 617 492
New Caledonia 5,300 6,354 7,683 8,024 8,627 7,709 8,478
Niue 60 79 82 54 45 60 25
Papua New Guinea 1 986 1,305 2,269 3,881 3,779 6,169
Samoa 4,100 4,445 6,022 7,191 7,489 9,660 10,859
Solomon Isl. 100 295 459 657 817 879 2,801
Tonga 2,531 3,768 3,934 3,475 5,376 7,156 9,512
Tuvalu 290 190 243 234 286 336 325
Vanuatu 740 1,037 873 1,169 1,243 1,720 1,933
OCEANIA 26,431 32,350 35,619 37,855 42,591 47,009 57,044
Source: FAO

Exports of fresh/frozen chicken from the region have shown little movement in recent years around 33,000 tonnes a year, of which 29,000 tonnes were shipped from Australia and 4,000 tonnes from New Zealand (Table 6).

Of Australia’s exports in 2011, some 6,700 tonnes went to Hong Kong, almost 6,000 tonnes to both Papua New Guinea and the Philippines and 4,000 tonnes to South Africa. Australian exports are currently put at around 34,000 tonnes a year or about three per cent of production.

Some 95 per cent comprise frozen cuts and offal, such as feet, kidneys and livers. The remaining five per cent is frozen whole chicken. It is generally thought that exports will grow to around 36,000 tonnes this year and again to about 45,000 tonnes by 2018/19, as the demand for frozen cuts and offal increases from South-East Asia and the Pacific regions.

Tegel is the main exporter in New Zealand and fully-cooked products account for 22 per cent of its business. Australia has been the main export destination to date but this company is now looking to sell to Japan, Hong Kong and African countries.

Table 6. Exports of fresh/frozen chicken meat from countries in Oceania (tonnes)
Country2000200620072008200920102011
Australia 14,127 16,149 24,541 271,879 29,231 24,741 29,235
Fiji 3 42 29 88 98 29 61
New Zealand 128 4,470 3,584 3,738 3,998 4,379 3,457
Tonga - - 1 0 0 0 0
OCEANIA 14,258 20,661 28,155 31,015 33,327 29,149 32,767
- no figure
Source: FAO

 

Further Reading

Go to our previous article in this series by clicking here.

November 2014

 



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