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Effective Fumonisins Counteraction in Poultry

13 March 2015

Nutriad

This study from Nutriad demonstrates that the presence of fumonisins in the feed has adverse effects on broiler productivity and health, which can be ameliorated by the inclusion of UNIKE Plus in the diet.

Abstract

Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum. They occur worldwide and are found predominantly in maize and in maize-based animal feeds. Fumonisin B1 and other fumonisins inhibit ceramide synthase in all species and disrupt the sphingolipid metabolism, a process underlying the mechanism of toxicity and pathogenesis of fumonisin-related diseases.

The experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of UNIKE® Plus in diminishing the toxic effects of fumonisins added to broiler diets. Results demonstrated that the presence of fumonisins in the diet causes deleterious effects on productive and health parameters of broiler chicken.

The study indicated that continuous, specific, effective counteraction and control of mycotoxins with UNIKE Plus offers an opportunity to significantly improve animal health, performance, productivity and profit.

Introduction

Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum. They occur worldwide and are found predominantly in maize and in maize-based animal feeds. These mycotoxins are frequently found in countries with tropical or subtropical climates such as Brazil and the countries of South East Asia and Southern Europe.

Of the fumonisins, fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most common and has been extensively studied. FB1 causes the same toxic effects in animals as F. verticillioides- and F. proliferatum-contaminated feeds including equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM) and porcine pulmonary edema (PPE), diseases long associated with the consumption of mouldy feed by horses and pigs.

FB1 is toxic to the liver and kidney in all animal species, causing errors in mitosis followed by apoptosis in the affected tissues. FB1 is also toxic to the cardiovascular system in pigs and horses. FB1 and other fumonisins inhibit ceramide synthase in all species and disrupt the sphingolipid metabolism, a process underlying the mechanism of toxicity and pathogenesis of fumonisin-related diseases.

Sensitivity of Poultry

Poultry are much less sensitive to fumonisins than pigs or horses, with most of the toxic effects existing sub-clinically and often remaining hidden in the flock. The “invisible” effects of fumonisins continue to cause significant performance losses in affected animals. Poultry rations with high levels of Fusarium contamination have been associated with poor performance, feed refusal, diarrhoea, leg weakness, oral lesions and high mortality.

Negative Effects of Fumonisins in Broilers

The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the efficacy of UNIKE Plus in diminishing the toxic effects of fumonisins (FUM) added to broiler diets. The experimental design was randomised and 480 birds were distributed into four treatments with 12 replicates each and ten animals in each group. The experiment lasted 21 days.

Nutriad
Table 1. Levels of fumonisins and UNIKE Plus in experimental diets

FUM = fumonisins (FB1+FB2)

The following parameters were measured:

  • body weight: obtained by weighing each bird individually
  • feed intake: calculated as an average for each replicate
  • feed conversion ratio (FCR)
  • sphingolipids: ratio sphinganine/sphingosine (Sa/So) – an early biomarker to fumonisins exposure.

Results

Table 2 shows that FCR was poorest (+15.1 per cent) for the birds that were fed the diet containing fumonisins compared with control group. The FCR of the birds that received the diet containing UNIKE Plus (0.5 per cent) was better (-5.2 per cent) than the birds that received the diet containing only fumonisins.

Nutriad
Table 2. Performance of broilers (day 21) after receiving diets contaminated with fumonisins with or without addition of UNIKE Plus
a-c Averages in columns with different letters differ by the Bonferroni test (P≤0.05)

The Sa/So was higher (+275.4 per cent) in birds that received diets contaminated with fumonisins. The inclusion of 0.5 per cent of UNIKE Plus into contaminated diets reduced Sa/So (-37.8 per cent) when compared with birds that received only fumonisins (Figure 1).

Nutriad
Figure 1. Sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in blood serum of broilers exposed to fumonisins with or without addition of UNIKE Plus
a-c Averages in columns with different letters differ by the Bonferroni test (P≤0.05)

Conclusion

This study demonstrates that the presence of fumonisins in the diet causes deleterious effects on productive and health parameters of broiler chicken.

The results of this study indicate that continuous, specific, effective counteraction and control of mycotoxins offers an opportunity to significantly improve animal health, performance, productivity and profit.

March 2015



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