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GLOBAL POULTRY TRENDS 2014: Asia’s Shell Egg Trade Expands

13 May 2015

Global Poultry Trends 2014

Between 2000 and 2011, exports of shell eggs from Asia increased at an annual rate of more than nine per cent, writes industry analyst, Terry Evans, with Turkey's export volume increasing most notably.

Between 2000 and 2010, world trade in shell eggs increased by around eight per cent per year to exceed 2.0 million tonnes. However, 2011 witnessed a cut-back of more than 10 per cent to 1.8 million tonnes, primarily as the result of a sharp fall in sales from European countries (Table 1 and Figure 1).

Exports from Asia have grown by over nine per cent per year from 204,000 tonnes in 2000 to 553,000 tonnes in 2011. It should be noted that hatching eggs can be included in all the trade figures. In some instances, products exported from a country are not always produced in that country as they might be being trans-shipped between countries.

Table 1. Global egg trade ('000 tonnes)
 2000200620072008200920102011
Exports of hen eggs in shell:
Africa 6.2 5.9 3.7 5.7 6.6 11.4 7.4
Americas 93.0 102.0 128.9 114.2 109.8 114.9 126.6
Asia 204.1 287.6 386.4 514.7 539.4 536.8 552.8
Europe 640.7 835.1 894.8 1,037.5 1,105.6 1,353.3 1,118.9
Oceania 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.9 3.8 4.8 3.7
World 944.8 1,231.6 1,418.8 1,674.1 1,765.1 2,021.2 1,809.4
Imports of hen eggs in shell:
Africa 25.7 48.0 51.0 50.2 46.1 54.4 63.4
Americas 66.3 67.6 62.3 74.1 67.2 66.2 66.7
Asia 235.8 284.8 369.8 430.9 464.4 498.4 558.6
Europe 557.5 802.1 983.4 1,024.1 1,047.8 1,060.0 990.6
Oceania 0.7 2.4 1.5 1.7 2.4 2.8 1.8
World 886.0 1,204.8 1,468.0 1,581.0 1,627.9 1,681.8 1,681.2
Source FAO
Global Poultry Trends 5m Publishing
Figure 1. Global exports of hen eggs in shell by region ('000 tonnes)

Asian Trade in Eggs in Shell

Key exporter of shell eggs in this region is Turkey, this trade having expanded from less than 4,000 tonnes in 2000 to over 200,000 tonnes in 2011, when almost 160,000 tonnes were sent to Iraq and 27,000 tonnes to Iran (Table 2). This business has continued to grow with, according to the Turkish Statistical Institute, 2013 recorded sales of 268,000 tonnes, while in 2014, the total rose to 279,000 tonnes, of which 242,000 tonnes went to Iraq.

Some 121,000 tonnes out of a total of 138,000 tonnes exported by Malaysia in 2011 almost 121,000 tonnes went to Singapore. However, more recent figures indicate that exports have since contracted to less than 90,000 tonnes a year in 2013.

Although mainland China is a significant exporter of shell eggs the quantities sold have actually declined since 2008, amounting to less than 100,000 tonnes in 2011, when Hong Kong took 82,000 tonnes.

A similar picture emerges from the trade figures for India, as the quantity exported has contracted every year since 2007 to 34,000 tonnes in 2011. In the latter year, India’s biggest customer was Oman purchasing almost 9,000 tonnes. For 2013, an export figure of 32,000 tonnes has been released.

Table 2. Exports of hen eggs in shell from Asian countries (tonnes)
Country2000200520072008200920102011
Armenia 154 699 135 171 240 155 0
Azerbaijan 0 893 58 280 148 0 0
Bahrain 0 0 40 0 24 0 0
Bangladesh 0 5 0 0 0 0 0
Bhutan 4 0 0 0 0 0 0
China, mainland 64,646 79,889 118,832 144,374 133,854 100,225 99,748
China, Hong Kong SAR 303 293 346 433 601 613 818
China, Macao SAR 10 0 6 6 2 0 0
Cyprus 85 38 10 20 80 210 142
Georgia 0 2 779 74 1,020 13 238
India 11,344 58,744 67,259 52,409 44,180 34,861 33,915
Indonesia 211 10 19 3 7 6 1
Iran Isl. Rep. 38,751 2,537 10,395 8,617 395 20,979 2,839
Israel 2,188 636 0 810 338 169 229
Japan 40 147 247 380 683 872 290
Jordan 1,443 1,163 3,467 6,151 6,118 9,376 4,058
Kazakhstan 63 0 2 40 0 37 0
Korea Rep. 1 5 2 17 256 402 56
Kuwait 1,535 46 92 0 314 1,684 1,941
Kyrgyzstan 2 59 36 31 30 0 0
Lebanon 1,118 3,666 12,415 10,325 9,281 8,821 3,053
Malaysia 55,638 60,367 69,277 116,991 97,863 89,243 137,715
Oman 2,096 3,780 2,106 4,873 5,125 5,628 5,492
Pakistan 674 1,240 565 166 74 714 2,524
Philippines 18 20 9 5 4 4 2
Qatar 4 95 235 30 23 23 23
Saudi Arabia 7,669 12,665 28,155 11,472 29,653 41,222 41,585
Singapore 83 113 285 74 8 71 152
Sri Lanka 374 2,597 350 204 136 147 278
Syrian Arab Rep. 2,299 800 25 48,720 92,489 76,306 4
Thailand 5,975 6,657 16,205 25,343 22,462 8,809 4,668
Turkey 3,556 10,764 46,736 77,518 89,644 131,610 206,281
United Arab Emirates 800 1,037 5,872 2,652 2,085 1,158 2,295
Viet Nam 2,500 930 1,679 1,675 1,396 2,134 2,002
Yemen 150 6 4 82 7 196 713
ASIA 204,085 250,279 386,391 514,684 539,345 536,812 552,805
WORLD 944,793 1,111,230 1,414,784 1,674,065 1,765,121 2,021,225 1,809,404
Source FAO

Imports of hen eggs in shell into Asian countries have trended upwards totalling almost 560,000 tonnes in 2011 (Table 3 and Figure 2). In broad terms, they mirror the trade in exports as in the main they come from Asian countries.

Table 3. Imports of hen eggs in shell into Asian countries (tonnes)
Country2000200520072008200920102011
Afghanistan 0 1,392 12,154 17,308 16,106 12,669 20,705
Armenia 1,094 41 111 98 15 140 1,983
Azerbaijan 5,537 1,143 1,286 1,056 1,281 1,459 18,345
Bahrain 1,310 5,814 3,895 2,265 5,904 4,174 5,049
Bangladesh 2,400 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bhutan 856 0 0 0 0 286 286
Brunei Darussalam 600 1,066 341 624 573 544 907
Cambodia 45 0 35 142 142 0 59
China, mainland 156 3 30 158 70 185 243
China, Hong Kong SAR 81,027 85,422 88,935 90,551 91,880 95,244 103,067
China, Macao SAR 4,417 6,568 6,614 7,726 7,578 7,690 8,846
China, Taiwan 25 20 202 214 198 144 38
Cyprus 39 416 1,096 627 258 593 751
Georgia 6,229 5,371 2,026 1,386 692 598 455
India 23 366 294 119 66 144 315
Indonesia 1,325 286 526 132 4 8 0
Iran Isl. Rep. 24 259 42 40 649 922 29,620
Iraq 10,800 4,016 62,084 121,861 178,834 199,482 188,187
Israel 330 1,785 4,819 3,609 5,662 7,100 5,588
Japan 1,844 14,584 3,505 2,441 736 809 4,622
Jordan 182 49 66 12 11 239 455
Kazakhstan 6,407 3,948 15,317 14,171 16,505 9,031 14,922
Korea Rep. 530 757 517 498 478 543 385
Kuwait 9,271 12,719 25,271 7,773 930 3,800 1,189
Kyrgyzstan 2,077 45 639 1,238 1,200 3,447 4,067
Lao Peo. Dem. Rep. 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Lebanon 0 51 173 77 26 28 0
Malaysia 116 528 268 553 364 132 46
Mongolia 778 934 2,477 2,368 2,254 3,210 4,775
Myanmar 560 377 430 264 331 376 442
Nepal 0 71 40 20 0 62 5
Occ. Palestinian Terr. 2,500 1,500 2,200 2,200 2,200 2,200 2,200
Oman 11,388 13,800 19,170 15,145 15,664 16,605 18,176
Pakistan 63 41 162 326 142 1,484 667
Philippines 184 33 57 5 5 0 26
Qatar 5,636 8,347 8,812 14,273 15,000 17,614 717
Saudi Arabia 4,564 3,663 3,277 4,818 3,291 1,972 2,656
Singapore 40,308 54,688 62,330 69,127 72,260 75,837 75,491
Sri Lanka 0 40 15 478 0 100 431
Syrian Arab Rep. 0 29 370 30 0 88 5,562
Tajikistan 681 4,900 5,000 5,702 3,644 5,823 3,377
Thailand 6 102 204 79 14 32 191
Turkey 1,051 1,350 843 725 694 848 1,005
Turkmenistan 3,400 8 153 840 800 800 3,921
United Arab Emirates 24,366 28,891 29,140 33,648 13,945 15,498 22,321
Uzbekistan 148 104 40 150 189 171 322
Viet Nam 110 0 4 11 12 1 156
Yemen 1,735 0 573 125 210 27 65
ASIA 235,842 269,228 369,757 430,899 464,405 498,406 558,623
WORLD 886,023 1,093,651 1,468,005 1,580,962 1,627,866 1,681,751 1,681,176
Source FAO

As is indicated by the trade in exports, the major importer is Iraq, which purchases close to 200,000 tonnes a year, the bulk being bought from Turkey. Clearly this figure is now much higher than this.

Second largest buyer is Hong Kong, mainly supplied by mainland China, while Singapore occupies the third spot with purchases primarily from Malaysia.

Global Poultry Trends 5m Publishing
Figure 2. Global imports of hen eggs in shell by region ('000 tonnes)

Trade in Dried Eggs by Asian Countries

Asia is insignificant in global exports of dried egg (Table 4 and Figure 3). It should be noted that the dried egg data does not include the trade in albumen (whites).

Clearly, India was the key player in 2011, selling over 6,000 tonnes of which 1,600 tonnes went to Germany, 1,000 tonnes to Indonesia and 800 tonnes to Japan. India’s exports have since climbed to around 8,000 to 9,000 tonnes.

Table 4. Exports of dried egg* from Asian countries (tonnes)
Country2000200520072008200920102011
Azerbaijan 0 0 0 0 9 0 0
China, Hong Kong SAR 0 2 6 0 1 2 4
China, mainland 95 1,515 2,569 3,421 2,032 1,473 1,058
China, Taiwan 16 19 34 39 42 50 64
Cyprus 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
India 957 7,699 7,719 7,250 6,763 6,085 6,240
Indonesia 2 3 0 39 2 22 0
Iran Isl. Rep. 2 75 0 0 0 0 0
Israel 808 185 134 59 0 0 0
Japan 6 23 4 12 22 14 6
Jordan 1 0 0 0 0 1 2
Kazakhstan 13 4 2 0 0 0 0
Korea Rep. 6 0 5 6 20 0 18
Lebanon 0 1 70 28 14 3 0
Malaysia 0 0 0 15 78 0 0
Philippines 0 0 1 1 1 0 0
Qatar 0 17 0 2 2 2 2
Saudi Arabia 0 16 351 0 0 0 0
Singapore 0 5 0 10 1 0 0
Syrian Arab Rep 5 0 0 0 0 0 0
Thailand 200 5 5 36 5 3 11
Turkey 9 0 0 0 0 1 0
United Arab Emirates 0 196 10 58 58 43 2
Uzbekistan 13 0 0 0 0 0 0
Yemen 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
ASIA 2,135 9,765 10,910 10,978 9,050 7,699 7,407
WORLD 29,412 47,578 54,735 57,614 57,074 55,800 59,534
*The data does not include dried albumin
Source FAO
Global Poultry Trends 5m Publishing
Figure 3. Global exports of dried egg by region ('000 tonnes)

Imports of dried egg into Asian countries have nearly doubled since 2000, totalling more than 13,000 tonnes in 2011 (Table 5 and Figure 3).

Table 5. Imports of dried egg* into Asian countries (tonnes)
Country2000200520072008200920102011
Armenia 0 15 23 17 19 145 24
Azerbaijan 0 0 0 8 23 28 60
Bahrain 0 0 1 1 1 0 1
Bangladesh 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
Cambodia 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
China, Hong Kong SAR 100 167 161 153 171 153 168
China, Macao SAR 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
China, mainland 1 3 5 20 21 44 39
China, Taiwan 87 55 320 405 161 201 270
Cyprus 2 3 10 3 23 9 47
Georgia 1 0 0 1 5 3 2
India 0 3 0 0 0 0 0
Indonesia 252 393 994 1,154 1,205 1,296 1,183
Iran Isl. Rep. 0 0 55 31 7 31 185
Iraq 0 7 0 0 0 1 1
Israel 0 1 19 9 20 19 28
Japan 4,582 7,460 6,284 6,018 5,088 5,005 6,358
Jordan 4 408 574 657 716 778 724
Kazakhstan 82 700 944 723 733 579 85
Korea Dem. Peo. Rep. 30 0 6 6 6 6 6
Korea Rep. 271 448 471 307 356 340 572
Kuwait 84 46 30 33 2 13 41
Kyrgyzstan 0 0 6 0 0 0 0
Lebanon 5 2 4 1 1 8 3
Malaysia 121 88 122 105 76 142 67
Mongolia 4 0 1 0 0 0 0
Myanmar 4 0 0 0 0 0 0
Oman 0 18 0 316 36 188 27
Pakistan 11 138 14 23 12 20 142
Philippines 478 509 422 409 552 557 534
Qatar 0 195 204 142 142 219 219
Saudi Arabia 209 490 675 441 845 544 909
Singapore 120 24 16 44 30 20 127
Sri Lanka 0 53 166 205 108 15 8
Syrian Arab Rep. 6 106 11 21 13 45 13
Thailand 320 309 279 354 330 225 416
Turkey 93 51 40 45 31 55 58
United Arab Emirates 0 177 171 79 79 223 919
Yemen 34 27 43 67 26 84 144
ASIA 6,904 11,899 12,071 11,798 10,838 10,996 13,380
WORLD 34,244 53,613 60,850 55,672 53,671 59,408 59,732
*The data does not include dried albumin
Source: FAO

Not surprisingly, Japan is the biggest buyer, taking almost 6,400 tonnes in 2011 (excluding whites) of which, almost 5,000 tonnes were bought from the US. More recent data provided by the IEC indicates that Japan’s purchases of all dried egg products (including whites) amounted to more than 17,000 tonnes in 2014.

Global Poultry Trends 5m Publishing
Figure 4. Global imports of dried egg by region ('000 tonnes)

Asian Trade in Liquid Egg Products

As with dried egg, Asia is not an important exporter of liquid egg, the annual total only exceeding 11,000 tonnes in five of the years between 2000 and 2011 (Table 6 and Figure 4).

Table 6. Exports of liquid egg from Asian countries (tonnes)
Country2000200520072008200920102011
Bahrain 0 61 1 1 13 39 0
China, Hong Kong SAR 53 5 56 63 49 81 150
China, Macao SAR 0 4 1 0 1 0 0
China, mainland 2,032 4,955 3,102 3,215 3,197 3,435 3,606
China, Taiwan 22 275 360 442 131 62 309
India 4,539 1,500 351 283 523 600 443
Indonesia 9 82 0 0 0 0 1
Iran Isl. Rep. 0 22 43 7 7 6 0
Israel 14 0 23 81 173 241 85
Japan 36 22 21 25 6 6 6
Kazakhstan 10 0 0 0 0 0 0
Korea Rep. 37 2 14 11 11 57 0
Lebanon 0 0 25 24 2 0 0
Malaysia 48 52 705 589 205 210 112
Saudi Arabia 24 266 1,730 1,202 1,734 2,738 5,503
Singapore 25 10 7 1 3 5 8
Sri Lanka 0 1 1 1 2 0 0
Thailand 2,369 2,950 2,845 3,219 2,814 3,467 3,469
Turkey 0 0 9 1 0 0 1
United Arab Emirates 0 106 27 29 104 498 185
ASIA 9,218 10,313 9,321 9,214 8,987 11,489 13,878
WORLD 144,191 194,078 217,255 235,998 266,442 272,639 313,984
Source FAO

Although Saudi Arabia appears to be the most heavily involved here, it is likely that a significant quantity of 5,500 tonnes exported is product being transhipped through the country.

Global Poultry Trends 5m Publishing
Figure 5. Global exports of liquid egg by region ('000 tonnes)

Japan was the recipient of the bulk of the liquid egg exports from both mainland China and Thailand (Table 7). Of the liquid egg imports totalling 25,000 tonnes in 2011, Japan took almost half with purchases of 12,200 tonnes, of which the US supplied 8,600 tonnes (yolk).

Since then, Japan’s imports of liquid egg have slipped back to around 9,000 tonnes a year.

Table 7. Imports of liquid egg into Asian countries (tonnes)
Country2000200520072008200920102011
Armenia 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
Azerbaijan 0 1 0 0 0 20 0
Bahrain 45 41 42 80 59 100 149
Brunei Darussalam 30 42 23 71 215 239 135
China, Hong Kong SAR 1,789 1,318 1,753 1,789 1,647 2,186 2,297
China, Macao SAR 0 17 65 73 56 0 36
China, mainland 140 3 3 97 12 6 6
China, Taiwan 110 384 141 104 144 360 197
Cyprus 3 155 446 566 574 694 614
Georgia 0 1 1 1 0 0 0
India 0 1 9 1 12 24 1
Indonesia 170 165 162 145 44 20 46
Iran Isl. Rep. 0 17 0 0 0 24 0
Israel 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Japan 14,982 22,678 6,467 8,123 7,645 9,680 12,220
Jordan 1 0 22 41 108 129 121
Kazakhstan 0 1 0 8 18 8 337
Korea Rep. 572 1,855 1,463 735 476 833 1,353
Kuwait 123 0 0 0 0 0 0
Lebanon 2 6 14 9 32 79 39
Malaysia 90 26 1 2 5 0 21
Maldives 0 23 60 20 16 30 15
Mongolia 27 1 14 0 0 0 0
Nepal 0 1 10 6 0 0 0
Oman 180 125 580 478 351 597 552
Pakistan 1 11 11 0 0 0 1
Philippines 292 428 458 677 846 842 676
Qatar 1 41 1,123 1,700 1,600 1,571 1,600
Saudi Arabia 458 499 610 0 0 1,002 2,415
Singapore 1,219 609 624 443 439 545 736
Sri Lanka 1 2 2 17 35 41 85
Thailand 66 61 99 62 103 102 147
Turkey 169 0 2 40 120 103 43
United Arab Emirates 250 332 4,089 4,687 1,855 1,631 1,544
Uzbekistan 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Yemen 0 0 0 0 6 6 7
ASIA 20,724 28,845 18,294 20,001 16,445 20,872 25,393
WORLD 124,335 189,368 215,287 230,369 249,486 270,486 271,809
Source FAO
Global Poultry Trends 5m Publishing
Figure 6. Global imports of liquid egg by region ('000 tonnes)

Further Reading

Go to our previous article in this series by clicking here.

May 2015

 



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