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GLOBAL POULTRY TRENDS - Asia Dominates Duck Production

03 September 2015

Global Poultry Trends 2012

Asia's domination of world duck production continues, with production increasing over the last 15 years, writes industry analyst Terry Evans.

Between 2000 and 2013, industry growth in this region averaged 3.5 per cent per year which was just above the global figure of 3.2 per cent.

World production rose from a shade below 3 million tonnes to almost 4.4 million tonnes (Table 1 and figure 1). The comparable figures for Asia were 2.3 million tonnes and nearly 3.7 million tonnes. Thus, Asia succeeded in boosting its share of global output from 80.4 per cent to 83.8 per cent.

The data presented in these tables are what the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) considers to be indigenous production, this being the eviscerated weight from the slaughterings of domestically grown birds plus the meat equivalent of birds exported live.

Table 1. Indigenous duck meat production ('000 tonnes)
YearWorldAsia
2000 2896.0 2329.4
2001 2973.0 2405.0
2002 2947.4 2336.7
2003 3012.8 2408.7
2004 3091.8 2475.1
2005 3327.7 2687.5
2006 3404.7 2727.5
2007 3608.4 2905.3
2008 3800.6 3112.6
2009 3903.2 3209.9
2010 4031.4 3322.9
2011 4183.5 3465.8
2012 4333.6 3619.2
2013 4367.3 3659.6
Source: FAO

Figure 1. Worldwide duck production mirrors the trend in Asia (million tonnes)

In terms of the numbers of ducks slaughtered worldwide, the total went up from 1,969 million to 2,886 million. For Asia the figure rose from 1,727 million to 2,628 million. In this instance, Asia’s contribution rose from 87.7 per cent to 91.1 per cent.

These shares were higher than those for duck meat output because the average eviscerated weight in Asia at 1.4kg was significantly lighter than in the other regions of the world and the global average of 1.5kg.      

Industry growth in Asia has been a commendable 3.5 per cent per year making this the most important duck producing region. Not surprisingly, mainland China is the key producer, output having accelerated from 1.8 million tonnes to more than 2.9 million tonnes, at which point it represented almost 80 per cent of the regional total and more than two-thirds of the global figure.

Malaysia’s industry has expanded by 3.6 per cent per year and currently annual output could well exceed 130,000 tonnes.

The fastest growing industry in the region would appear to be Myanmar where production, stimulated by an almost 11 per cent per year increase, has jumped from less than 29,000 tonnes to 107,000 tonnes

Duck production in Viet Nam recorded a positive near 4 per cent per year increase for most of the review period, with output exceeding 100,000 tonnes a year since 2011.

Taiwan’s industry has changed little over the period, while output in recent years has been significantly below the 2005 level of 71,500 tonnes.

The Korean Republic has posted positive gains with production coming close to 70,000 tonnes in 2013.

In contrast to the trends exhibited by most of the other leading producers, Thailand recorded a cutback from more than 100,000 tonnes a year to less than 90,000 tonnes in 2013.

A similar picture has been evident in India where production has declined slightly in recent years, the 2013 figure amounting to less than 30,000 tonnes compared with 46,000 tonnes in 2000.

Virtually all of Europe’s ducks are produced in European Union countries. Although there is a wide difference between sources on the estimates of production in 2000, the broad view since 2009 is that output in Europe has averaged around 500,000 tonnes a year with only a couple of thousand tonnes being grown outside the EU. During the review period, growth in this region was slow averaging only 1.5 per cent per year.

France is undoubtedly the biggest producer in Europe, though estimates of production in this country vary widely according to source. In 2013 for example the FAO has put out a figure of 280,000 tonnes, while an annual report by the Association of Poultry Processors and Poultry Trade in the EU countries (AVEC) presents a much lower figure of 233,000 tonnes.

Second largest producer in the Community is Hungary. Here duck meat output climbed at 3 per cent per year from 43,500 tonnes in 2000 to 61,500 tonnes in 2012, but then eased back a little to 59,600 tonnes in 2013.

The trend in Germany was similar to that in Hungary. With production of more than 56,000 tonnes in 2013 Germany was Europe’s third largest producer.

Although the UK ranks fourth in Europe, production has fallen somewhat from more than 40,000 tonnes in 2000 to around the 31,000 tonnes mark at the end of the review period.

Although small, duck production in Africa expanded by almost 4 per cent per year from 56,000 tonnes to 93,000 tonnes (Table 2). This region has only one major producer-Egypt, where output increased from 38,000 tonnes (67 per cent of the regional total) to 71,500 tonnes (77 per cent).

Table 2. Indigenous duck meat production ('000 tonnes)
Region/Country2000200520092010201120122013
AFRICA 56.6 73.7 90.4 87.4 85.3 93.3 93.0
Of which:              
Egypt 38.0 54.9 69.5 66.2 63.3 71.5 71.5
Madagascar 10.9 10.6 11.6 11.8 12.0 12.0 11.8
AMERICAS 96.4 132.8 101.7 104.4 107.3 108.0 109.4
Of which:              
Argentina 7.3 7.4 9.1 9.2 9.4 9.4 9.4
Brazil 7.2 7.4 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.9
Canada 7.5 10.2 9.4 9.0 9.3 10.3 10.6
Mexico 20.0 20.3 20.5 20.8 20.9 20.9 20.9
USA 52.6 85.1 51.9 54.1 56.3 55.7 56.8
ASIA 2329.4 2687.5 3209.9 3322.9 3465.8 3619.2 3659.6
Of which:              
Bangladesh 33.0 36.9 41.2 41.5 44.0 45.0 46.0
China, mainland 1801.0 2077.9 2551.9 2650.0 2733.9 2885.1 2922.3
China,Taiwan Prov 64.5 71.5 63.3 67.1 67.6 64.0 64.0
India 46.0 38.3 33.8 33.3 32.5 31.2 29.9
Indonesia 13.8 21.4 25.8 26.0 28.2 33.6 34.6
Korea Rep 44.6 51.7 61.4 64.1 66.9 69.4 69.4
Malaysia 82.1 120.7 123.2 125.2 128.1 129.6 129.6
Myanmar 28.4 60.5 89.1 98.1 105.2 105.9 107.0
Thailand 102.1 82.6 77.3 80.0 90.3 90.2 89.9
Viet Nam 69.6 72.0 79.2 74.8 105.0 100.4 102.5
EUROPE 404.6 423.0 481.8 499.1 508.6 496.6 488.8
Of which:              
France 233.3 233.0 265.6 284.2 291.7 281.6 280.4
Germany 40.0 42.4 64.0 62.7 57.9 56.4 56.4
Hungary 43.5 53.1 52.3 52.7 59.4 61.5 59.6
Netherlands 14.1 15.2 17.3 16.2 16.2 14.6 11.2
Poland 11.0 18.2 17.0 17.2 16.8 16.8 16.8
UK 40.5 35.9 30.0 29.6 33.0 32.3 30.6
EU 401.5 418.7 480.2 497.3 506.7 494.2 486.4
OCEANIA 8.9 10.7 19.3 17.6 16.5 16.5 16.5
Of which:              
Australia 8.0 9.9 18.5 16.8 15.8 15.8 15.8
WORLD 2896.0 3327.7 3903.2 4031.4 4183.5 4333.6 4367.3
Source: FAO

The only other significant producer is Madagascar where output has shown a small gain from 11,000 to 12,000 tonnes.

Duck production in the Americas is only a little larger than in Africa, output having risen from 96,000 to 109,000 tonnes between 2000 and 2013, as growth averaged just 1 per cent per year.

While the USA is the largest producer, output over the later part of the review period stagnated at about 56,000 tonnes a year.

Mexico has seen virtually no increase from around the 21,000 tonnes a year level.

Canada’s production expanded at 2.7 per cent per year from 7,500 tonnes in 2000 to a new “high” of 10,600 tonnes in 2013.

Argentina and Brazil are the only other countries in the Americas with annual outputs of more than 2,000 tonnes.

The production pattern for Oceania mirrors the developments in Australia as this country represents three -quarters of the regional total. After more than doubling to 2009, Australia’s industry has since contracted to around 16,000 tonnes a year.

Duck trade nearly doubles

Trade in fresh/frozen duck meat almost doubled between 2000 and 2012 from 107,000 tonnes to 206,000 tonnes (Table 3). Two-thirds of duck meat exports came from Europe which rapidly expanded sales in 2012 (Table 3 and figure 2).

Table 3. Exports of fresh and frozen duck meat (tonnes)
Region/Country2000200520082009201020112012
AFRICA 304 383 318 1090 907 2325 91
Of which:              
South Africa 274 352 149 848 775 2232 41
AMERICAS 6754 16117 11405 10885 14770 17438 9932
Of which:              
Brazil 6 1220 1181 1917 2178 1507 3025
Canada 1827 2771 2629 2559 5780 7852 2416
USA 4909 12126 7609 6158 6733 8003 4474
ASIA 34034 29158 42059 42672 57759 55439 59195
Of which:              
China mainland 7594 16754 26458 26008 41239 42616 34760
China Hong Kong SAR 16253 5467 3715 5159 4488 1858 11827
India 0 0 153 418 1744 1329 810
Malaysia 193 423 394 188 405 592 585
Saudi Arabia 137 276 126 2 1736 1950 424
Thailand 8832 736 5629 6428 5301 3218 2225
EUROPE 65338 56584 69370 71487 77449 83238 136210
Of which:              
France 16524 13486 12113 10288 9491 9332 36812
Germany 4532 6484 14006 13732 18382 20129 23904
Hungary 24677 16108 14943 21511 23504 23670 34313
Netherlands 8920 7498 16105 14862 14165 17511 18147
UK 8163 5471 5225 4348 4694 5303 1528
EU 65334 56014 68475 70991 76725 82427 134611
EU ex int 3481 3867 5413 5208 7982 6814 24524
OCEANIA 606 201 252 337 245 121 96
Of which:              
Australia 401 107 163 204 140 6 23
WORLD 107036 102443 123404 126471 151130 158561 205524
Source: FAO

Figure 2. Europe dominates world duck meat exports (tonnes)

In 2012, a massive 99 per cent Europe’s exports were sold by EU member states, with some 18 per cent of this business being conducted with countries outside the Community.

Four countries dominated Europe’s duck export trade as France, Hungary, Germany and the Netherlands accounted for around of 84 per cent of all sales from EU countries which amounted to 134,600 tonnes in 2012 (Table 3 and figure 3).


Figure 3. Four countries dominate Europe's duck meat exports (tonnes)

In 2012, France exported almost 37,000 tonnes which was four times as much as in previous years. Sales were made to more than 70 countries, most of which took small quantities.

Her leading customers were Germany (buying 12,100 tonnes), Hong Kong (4,800 tonnes), the UK (2,900 tonnes), Denmark (2,400 tonnes) and Belgium (2,000 tonnes), these five purchasing some 24,200 tonnes or 66 per cent of the 2012 total.

Number two in the European export league is Hungary which sold some 34,300 tonnes in 2012. Her main customers, taking 90 per cent of the total in that year, were Germany (8,500 tonnes), the Czech Republic (6,200 tonnes), Slovakia (3,600 tonnes), Austria (2,800 tonnes), the UK (1,900 tonnes), the Russian Federation (1,700 tonnes), France (1,600 tonnes), Hong Kong (1,500 tonnes), Belgium (1,400 tonnes) and Japan (1,300 tonnes).

Of the near 18,200 tonnes sold by the Netherlands, Germany received almost 7,200 tonnes, Spain 3,700 tonnes, France 1,600 tonnes and the UK 1,000 tonnes.

There are many reasons (explained in other regional reports) why the global figures for exports and imports do not balance in a particular year.

In general, total exports tend to exceed imports as the bulk of the data on exports are normally collected from just a few countries, while far more countries are involved in importing making it more difficult to collect all the relevant data.

Clearly imports into Africa, the Americas and Oceania are small hence the key importing regions are Asia and Europe.

Within Asia, Hong Kong is the only significant importer and it would appear that the figure for 2012 of 15,000 tonnes is grossly understated considering that conventionally this country's purchases have been in the region of 55,000 tonnes a year and that the detailed export data for 2012 indicated that shipments from mainland China to Hong Kong amounted to more than 23,000 tonnes!

In Europe, or more precisely the European Union, the main buyers in 2012 were Germany (29,500 tonnes), France (13,000 tonnes) and the Czech Republic (12,000 tonnes).

France with 12,700 tonnes and Hungary (8,800 tonnes) were the leading suppliers to the German market, while Bulgaria (5,100 tonnes), Belgium (2,900 tonnes) and Hungary (1,600 tonnes) accounted for the bulk of France’s imports.

Hungary (6,600 tonnes) and Germany (2,300 tonnes) were the key suppliers to the Czech Republic.

Duck imports into the Russian Federation reached a new “high” of 6,000 tonnes in 2012 purchases primarily being made from Germany (2,600 tonnes) and Hungary (1,800 tonnes).

September 2015

 



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