Tuesday, March 31, 2015 Bird Flu Outbreak in Wild Birds in Eastern Romania
ROMANIA - Sixty-four birds in a flock of around 250 Dalmatian pelicans (Pelecanus crispus; Pelecanidae) found dead on 25 March have tested positive for the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. The birds were found at Sinoe Lake, Ceaplace island in the region of Constanta, which is in the east of the country on the Black Sea. There are no domestic poultry within 10km.OIE
Monday, March 30, 2015 USDA at Work on Poultry Vaccine for H5N8, H5N2
US - With the highly pathogenic avian flu (HPAI) strains H5N2 and H5N8 threatening US poultry flocks, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has begun developing a vaccine as a backup tool to protect them, just in case the standard containment measures fail.CIDRAP Two New Outbreaks of High-path Avian Flu in Minnesota Turkeys
David E. Swayne, DVM, PhD, director of the USDA Agricultural Research Service's Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory in Athens, Georgia, said he and his colleagues are working on a virus seed strain for a vaccine to combat the two viruses.
US - Two new outbreaks have been confirmed of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza in a commercial turkey flock in the counties of Lac Qui Parle and Stearns in Minnesota.ThePoultrySite News Desk Uttar Pradesh Bird Flu Alert Shifts to Agra
UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA - The cause of death of 4,000 poultry in Agra is under investigation.ThePoultrySite News Desk Father, Child Die of Bird Flu in Greater Jakarta
INDONESIA - Two residents in Tangerang, Banten, allegedly died of the avian influenza H5N1 last week.Jakarta Post South Korea HPAI Cases Continue into 2015
The head of the Tangerang Food Resilience and Agriculture Agency, Iis Aisyah Rodiyah, said the residents were a 40-year-old man and his two-year-old child.
SOUTH KOREA - The government continues with efforts to control High Pathogen Avian Influenza (HPAI) in poultry farms, according to the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. The H5N8 variant of the virus has been identified as the cause of the outbreaks.ThePoultrySite News Desk
Friday, March 27, 2015 USDA Confirms Highly Pathogenic H5N2 Avian Influenza in Wild Bird in Wyoming
US - The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza (HPAI) in a wild Canada goose in Laramie County, Wyoming. This is the first finding of the Eurasian lineage avian influenza viruses in wild birds in the Central flyway.USDA APHIS High-path H5N1 Avian Flu Kills Wild Birds in North-east Bulgaria
CDC considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections in wild birds, backyard flocks and commercial poultry, to be low. No human infections with the virus have been detected at this time.
BULGARIA - A total of 21 Dalmatian pelicans (Pelecanus crispus; Pelecanidae) found dead at Srebana in the municipality of Silistra on 23 March have tested positive for the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Silistra is in the north-east of the country and borders Romania.OIE Wild Birds Test Positive for Avian Flu Virus in Uttar Pradesh
INDIA - Three dead house crows (Corvus splendens; Corvidae) at two locations in Uttar Pradesh tested positive for the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus on 20 March. One was found in the district of Amethi and two in Sultanpur.OIE Three Outbreaks of Low-path Avian Flu in South African Ostriches
SOUTH AFRICA - Over a three-month period around the turn of the year, ostriches at three farms in Western Cape province tested positive for the H5N2 low-pathogenic avian influenza virus.ThePoultrySite News Desk
Thursday, March 26, 2015 China Reports 4th H5N1 Avian Influenza Case This Year
CHINA - The Chinese National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) has announced a fourth human case of avian influenza A(H5N1) in a 17-year-old man from Yunnan. He has been admitted to hospital in Kunming and is in a critical condition. Outbreak News Today Commercial Flock in Kansas Tests Positive for Low-path Avian Flu
KANSAS, US - A new case of low-pathogenic avian influenza has been confirmed in Crawford county, which is in south-east Kansas. This outbreak appears unrelated to an outbreak of highly pathogenic bird flu in Leavenworth county, north-east Kansas, in the first week of March.ThePoultrySite News Desk Avian Flu Hits Two More Taiwanese Goose Flocks
TAIWAN - There have been two new outbreaks of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian flu on goose farms in western Taiwan.ThePoultrySite News Desk High-path Avian Influenza Hits Palestine
PALESTINIAN TERRITORY - A small backyard poultry flock in Jerusalem has been hit by an outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic bird flu.ThePoultrySite News Desk
Wednesday, March 25, 2015 USDA to Test Avian Flu Vaccine; Wild Birds Nixed as Minnesota H5N2 Source
US - The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) plans to develop and test a vaccine for the highly pathogenic avian influenza strains that have surfaced in nine western and midwestern states in the past few months, Reuters reported on 24 March.CIDRAP WHO Update Shows Ongoing H5N1 Activity in Egypt
Meanwhile, Minnesota wildlife officials have ruled out wild birds as a possible source of the H5N2 virus that devastated a Minnesota turkey flock earlier this month, after tests of wild birds in the area showed no signs of the virus.
EGYPT - The health ministry has reported 17 more H5N1 avian influenza infections to the World Health Organization (WHO), indicating continuing disease activity that began in November, according to an update from the WHO's Eastern Mediterranean regional office on 21 March.CIDRAP
The cases were reported up to 17 March, raising the total reported to the WHO so far this year to 116 cases, 36 of them fatal. The new infections appear not to have been included in the WHO's previous update on 14 March.
Tuesday, March 24, 2015 H5N8 Found in More Wild Birds in US, Sweden
US & SWEDEN - Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 viruses have been found in two more wild birds in Oregon and also in a pair in Sweden, and US officials have provided a few new details on the recent H5N2 outbreak in Kansas.CIDRAP New Cases of H5N1 in China, Egypt
In Oregon, one Canada goose and one American widgeon in Klamath county tested positive for the H5N8 high-path bird flu virus on 9 March.
Ten mute swans in Stockholm were found dead in mid-February. Five tested positive for the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and two were found to have the H5N8 variant.
CHINA & EGYPT - One new H5N1 avian flu case was reported in both China and Egypt, according to health department statements.CIDRAP Vet Division to Test for Bird Flu in Jamaica
The case in China involves a 34-year-old man in Yunnan province. He is currently in hospital in a serious condition. He had been exposed to poultry.
The case in Egypt involved a four-year-old child in Sharqia governorate. A statement said that four adults recently recovered from the disease, three in Sharqia and one in Kafr-El-Shaikh governorate. Egypt has now confirmed 104 H5N1 cases this year, according to FluTrackers.
JAMAICA - Members of the Veterinary Services Division in the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries are to embark on a bird-trapping expedition with officers from the National Environment and Planning Agency (NEPA), to test for the highly contagious virus which causes avian influenza.The Gleaner Details Emerge of Avian Flu Outbreak in Kansas Backyard Flock
KANSAS, US - The earlier outbreak of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian flu in a backyard flock of chickens and ducks in Leavenworth County, Kansas started on 5 March. Of the 21 birds in the flock, eight died and 13 were destroyed. They had had contact with wild ducks.OIE
(aka bird flu, avian flu) is caused by a type of influenza virus that is hosted by birds, but may infect several species of mammals. It was first identified in Italy in the early 1900s and is now known to exist worldwide. A strain of the H5N1-type of avian influenza virus that emerged in 1997 has been identified as the most likely source of a future influenza pandemic.
Strains of avian influenza virus may infect various types of animals, including birds, pigs, horses, seals, whales and humans. However, wild fowl act as natural asymptomatic carriers, spreading it to more susceptible domestic stocks. Avian influenza virus spreads in the air and in manure and there is no evidence that the virus can survive in well cooked meat.
How to Recognise Avian Influenza
What to look for
- Ruffled feathers
- Soft-shelled eggs
- Depression and droopiness
- Sudden drop in egg production
- Loss of appetite
- Cyanosis (purplish-blue coloring) of wattles and comb
- Edema and swelling of head, eyelids, comb, wattles, and hocks
- Green diarrhoea
- Blood-tinged discharge from nostrils
- Incoordination, including loss of ability to walk and stand
- Pin-point hemorrhages (most easily seen on the feet and shanks)
- Respiratory distress
- Increased death losses in a flock
- Sudden death
- Nasal discharges
For more detail in avian influenza in poultry click here
Poultry Vaccination as a strategy for controlling AI in commercial birds
Outbreaks of avian influenza in the poultry industry cause devastating economic losses and is generally controlled through extensive culling of infected birds. Alternative strategies also use vaccination as a supplementary control measure during avian influenza outbreaks.
Advantages of Vaccination
For more information on poultry vaccination see:
- Vaccination reduces susceptibility to infection.
- A higher dose of virus is necessary to infect the vaccinated birds.
- Vaccinated birds shed less virus.
- Decreased contamination of the environment.
- Decreased risk of human infection
- Used strategically vaccination compliments a stamping out strategy by slowing/stopping the spread of the virus
Avian Influenza (Fowl Plague) is a potentially devastating disease, predominantly of chickens and turkeys, although the virus can also affect game birds (pheasants, partridge and quail), ratites (ostrich and emu), psittacine and passerine birds.
Avian Influenza is caused by an orthomyxovirus, or influenza virus and can survive for considerable lengths of time outside of the host and birds are infected through contact with other birds, mechanical vectors such as vehicles and equipment and personnel travelling between farms, markets and abattoirs.
Precautionary requirements include cleaning and disinfection of premises and the establishment of a Biosecurity barrier to help prevent spread of disease is essential.
For more information on biosecurity see the links below