To date, WHO has been informed of a total of 131 laboratory-confirmed cases, including 36 deaths.
Authorities in affected locations continue to maintain enhanced surveillance, epidemiological investigations, close contact tracing, clinical management, laboratory testing and sharing of samples as well as prevention and control measures. In the past week, the Shanghai and Zhejiang provincial governments have started to normalize their emergency operations into their routine surveillance and response activities. WHO offices in country, regional and headquarters continue to work closely to ensure timely information updates.
Until the source of infection has been identified and controlled, it is expected that there will be further cases of human infection with the virus.
So far, there is no evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission.
WHO does not advise special screening at points of entry with regard to this event, nor does it currently recommend any travel or trade restrictions.
WHO continues to work with Member States and international partners. WHO will provide updates as the situation evolves.
The current situation is the one of a zoonotic epidemic (Scenario A) in which the virus might be transmitted sporadically to humans in close contact with an animal reservoir. The second scenario is the movement towards efficient human to human transmission (a pandemic Scenario B).
The authors identified epidemiological events within the different scenarios that would trigger a new risk assessment and a review of the response activities to implement in the European Union (EU).
They also identified the surveillance activities needed to detect these events.
On 24 April, the first imported case, reported through both surveillance systems, was confirmed in a man returning from China by sequencing from endotracheal aspirates after two negative throat swabs. Three of 139 contacts were ill and tested influenza A(H7N9)-negative.
Suresh Mittal, a professor of comparative pathobiology in Purdue's College of Veterinary Medicine, has developed a new vaccination method that incorporates genes from multiple strains of the virus and creates protection that could persist through different mutations, he said.
The patient is a 79-year-old woman from Jiangxi province who became ill on 3 May 2013. Additionally, a patient earlier reported has died.
To date, a total of 131 laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus including 32 deaths have been reported to WHO.
(aka bird flu, avian flu) is caused by a type of influenza virus that is hosted by birds, but may infect several species of mammals. It was first identified in Italy in the early 1900s and is now known to exist worldwide. A strain of the H5N1-type of avian influenza virus that emerged in 1997 has been identified as the most likely source of a future influenza pandemic. Strains of avian influenza virus may infect various types of animals, including birds, pigs, horses, seals, whales and humans. However, wild fowl act as natural asymptomatic carriers, spreading it to more susceptible domestic stocks. Avian influenza virus spreads in the air and in manure and there is no evidence that the virus can survive in well cooked meat.
What to look for
- Ruffled feathers
- Soft-shelled eggs
- Depression and droopiness
- Sudden drop in egg production
- Loss of appetite
- Cyanosis (purplish-blue coloring) of wattles and comb
- Edema and swelling of head, eyelids, comb, wattles, and hocks
- Green diarrhoea
- Blood-tinged discharge from nostrils
- Incoordination, including loss of ability to walk and stand
- Pin-point hemorrhages (most easily seen on the feet and shanks)
- Respiratory distress
- Increased death losses in a flock
- Sudden death
- Nasal discharges
Poultry Vaccination as a strategy for controlling AI in commercial birds
Outbreaks of avian influenza in the poultry industry cause devastating economic losses and is generally controlled through extensive culling of infected birds. Alternative strategies also use vaccination as a supplementary control measure during avian influenza outbreaks.. Advantages of Vaccination
- Vaccination reduces susceptibility to infection.
- A higher dose of virus is necessary to infect the vaccinated birds.
- Vaccinated birds shed less virus.
- Decreased contamination of the environment.
- Decreased risk of human infection
- Used strategically vaccination compliments a stamping out strategy by slowing/stopping the spread of the virus
- Vaccination as Part of an Avian Influenza Control Strategy
- VECTORMUNE® HVT AIV
Avian Influenza (Fowl Plague) is a potentially devastating disease, predominantly of chickens and turkeys, although the virus can also affect game birds (pheasants, partridge and quail), ratites (ostrich and emu), psittacine and passerine birds.
Avian Influenza is caused by an orthomyxovirus, or influenza virus and can survive for considerable lengths of time outside of the host and birds are infected through contact with other birds, mechanical vectors such as vehicles and equipment and personnel travelling between farms, markets and abattoirs.
Precautionary requirements include cleaning and disinfection of premises and the establishment of a Biosecurity barrier to help prevent spread of disease is essential.
For more information on biosecurity see the links below
- Efficacy of rHVT-AI Vector Vaccine in Broilers with Passive Immunity Against Challenge with Two Antigenically Divergent Egyptian Clade 2.2.1 HPAI H5N1 Strains
- Efficacy of a Recombinant HVT-H5 Vaccine Against Challenge with Two Genetically Divergent Indonesian HPAI H5N1 Strains
- OIE - HPAI Situation Reports
- Avian Influenza WHO information
- Avian Influenza CDC information
- Bird flu timelines Recombinetics
- About Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza