About 80 per cent of the cases were related to poultry markets, with only a few cases related to chicken farms, said Zhong Nanshan, director of the Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases in Guangdong province.
There were about 370 cases of H7N9 bird flu found nationwide as of Monday since March 2013, when the nation's first such case was reported, and the number is still increasing, Zhong said at a news conference on the sidelines of the annual session of the National People’s Congress.
The study identifies a sampling methodology that will detect an estimated 75 per cent of circulating virus subtypes from a targeted bird population and outlines future surveillance and research priorities that are needed to explore the influence of host and virus biodiversity on emergence and transmission.
Details of the cases reported on 5 March are as follows: a 59-year-old man in Wuxi City, Jiangsu Province (critical); a 36-year-old man from Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province (critical) and a 75-year-old man from Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province (died).
Details of the case reported on 6 March are as follows: a 39-year-old man currently living Foshan City in Guangdong Province (severe condition).
The patient is an 18 month-old girl who developed mild fever. She consulted a doctor on 28 February, was admitted to a hospital on 1 March and was discharged from the hospital on 3 March in stable condition. Following laboratory-confirmation with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection on 4 March, the patient was admitted to another hospital. She is currently asymptomatic, with no fever.
Initial epidemiological investigation revealed that the patient travelled to Foshan, Guangdong province from 5 to 27 February, where she visited a wet market with her mother.
The devastating loss could set back poultry experiments at the NIAS lab for two years.
The H5N8 strain had never before been seen in such a deadly form when it surfaced on farms in central South Korea on 17 January.
The patient is a 59 year-old man from Zhuhai City, Guangdong Province. He became ill on 26 February, was admitted to a hospital on 1 March and died on 2 March. The patient has a history of exposure to live poultry.
The move was taken in view of a notification from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) about an outbreak of low-pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza on a poultry farm in Dronten for the protection of Hong Kong's public and animal health.
(aka bird flu, avian flu) is caused by a type of influenza virus that is hosted by birds, but may infect several species of mammals. It was first identified in Italy in the early 1900s and is now known to exist worldwide. A strain of the H5N1-type of avian influenza virus that emerged in 1997 has been identified as the most likely source of a future influenza pandemic. Strains of avian influenza virus may infect various types of animals, including birds, pigs, horses, seals, whales and humans. However, wild fowl act as natural asymptomatic carriers, spreading it to more susceptible domestic stocks. Avian influenza virus spreads in the air and in manure and there is no evidence that the virus can survive in well cooked meat.
What to look for
- Ruffled feathers
- Soft-shelled eggs
- Depression and droopiness
- Sudden drop in egg production
- Loss of appetite
- Cyanosis (purplish-blue coloring) of wattles and comb
- Edema and swelling of head, eyelids, comb, wattles, and hocks
- Green diarrhoea
- Blood-tinged discharge from nostrils
- Incoordination, including loss of ability to walk and stand
- Pin-point hemorrhages (most easily seen on the feet and shanks)
- Respiratory distress
- Increased death losses in a flock
- Sudden death
- Nasal discharges
Poultry Vaccination as a strategy for controlling AI in commercial birds
Outbreaks of avian influenza in the poultry industry cause devastating economic losses and is generally controlled through extensive culling of infected birds. Alternative strategies also use vaccination as a supplementary control measure during avian influenza outbreaks.. Advantages of Vaccination
- Vaccination reduces susceptibility to infection.
- A higher dose of virus is necessary to infect the vaccinated birds.
- Vaccinated birds shed less virus.
- Decreased contamination of the environment.
- Decreased risk of human infection
- Used strategically vaccination compliments a stamping out strategy by slowing/stopping the spread of the virus
- Vaccination as Part of an Avian Influenza Control Strategy
- VECTORMUNE® HVT AIV
Avian Influenza (Fowl Plague) is a potentially devastating disease, predominantly of chickens and turkeys, although the virus can also affect game birds (pheasants, partridge and quail), ratites (ostrich and emu), psittacine and passerine birds.
Avian Influenza is caused by an orthomyxovirus, or influenza virus and can survive for considerable lengths of time outside of the host and birds are infected through contact with other birds, mechanical vectors such as vehicles and equipment and personnel travelling between farms, markets and abattoirs.
Precautionary requirements include cleaning and disinfection of premises and the establishment of a Biosecurity barrier to help prevent spread of disease is essential.
For more information on biosecurity see the links below
- Efficacy of rHVT-AI Vector Vaccine in Broilers with Passive Immunity Against Challenge with Two Antigenically Divergent Egyptian Clade 2.2.1 HPAI H5N1 Strains
- Efficacy of a Recombinant HVT-H5 Vaccine Against Challenge with Two Genetically Divergent Indonesian HPAI H5N1 Strains
- OIE - HPAI Situation Reports
- Avian Influenza WHO information
- Avian Influenza CDC information
- Bird flu timelines Recombinetics
- About Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza