Wednesday, January 28, 2015 Human Infection with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus – China
HONG KONG - On 23 January 2015, the Department of Health, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region notified WHO of one additional laboratory-confirmed case of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus. The patient is a 79-year-old man who developed symptoms on 19 January and was admitted to hospital, where he is in a stable condition. Based on information available thus far, it is considered that the patient was infected outside Hong Kong. Initial epidemiological investigations revealed that he travelled to Zhangmutou, Dongguan, Guangdong on 5 January. During his travels, the patient visited a wet market with live poultry stalls but had no direct contact with poultry. He returned to Hong Kong on 19 January. World Health Organization H5N1 Virus Detected in Wild Water Bird in Bulgaria
BULGARIA - In the framework of the passive surveillance under the national avian influenza surveillance and control programme, a Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus) produced a real-time PCR-positive result for highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 was found dead on 22 January in Poda protected area in the east of the country. The pelican was found dead together with a black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus), which tested negative for avian flu.OIE British Columbia Woman Tests Positive for H7N9 Bird Flu after Trip to China
CANADA - The first North American human case of H7N9 bird flu has been confirmed in British Columbia.Vancouver Sun Bird Flu Kills Woman in Giza
Canadian health officials announced on 26 January that a woman in her 50s from the Lower Mainland has tested positive for avian influenza A(H7N9), following a visit to China. A man who travelled with her is believed to have been infected as well. They only developed symptoms after returning home to Canada earlier this month. Both are recovering well without admission to hospital.
EGYPT - The health ministry reported that a 31-year-old woman from Giza governorate has died of H5N1 avian flu. Of the 31 cases of H5N1 avian flu reported in Egypt this year, 10 people have now died. The Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population also announced that two more people have been hospitalised with H5N1; a four-year-old girl from Cairo and a 34-year-old woman from Al-Sharqia governorate, which is north of Cairo near the Nile Delta. Two people with H5N1 avian flu have recovered.Daily News Egypt
Monday, January 26, 2015 Avian Flu Virus Detected in Californian Turkey Flock
US - A poultry processor's early detection programme has identified avian influenza in a single turkey flock in California.ThePoultrysite News Desk Nigeria Reports Seven New Outbreaks of Bird Flu in Poultry
NIGERIA - The highly pathogenic avian influenza of the H5N1 variant has been identified as the cause of seven new outbreaks of the disease in poultry in the last week in the north and centre of the country.ThePoultrySite News Desk Low-pathogenic Avian Flu Virus Detected in Belize Poultry
BELIZE - During routine testing, the low-pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N2 has been detected in broiler breeders in the west of the country in December 2014.ThePoultrySite News Desk Taiwan Stops Poultry Slaughter to Control Avian Flu Spread
TAIWAN - The Council of Agriculture has imposed a four-day ban on killing chickens, ducks and geese in a bid to prevent the spread of the avian flu among poultry; more than half a million birds have been culled due to infections.ThePoultrySite News Desk
Sunday, January 25, 2015 H7N9 Sickens Three People in Mainland China, One in Hong Kong
CHINA & HONG KONG - Chinese authorities have reported four new H7N9 avian flu cases on 23 January, three of which occurred on the Chinese mainland and one that was likely imported from southern China to Hong Kong.CIDRAP Egypt Reports Eighth Bird Flu Death in 2015
Hong Kong's Centre for Health Protection (CHP) confirmed H7N9 infection in a 79-year-old man who presented to a clinic with respiratory symptoms on 19 January and was admitted to hospital and isolated in stable condition. The man travelled to the mainland provinces of Zhangmutou, Dongguan and Guangdong on 5 January, where he visited a live-poultry market but had no contact with birds.
EGYPT - The death toll of the patients who contracted H5N1 bird flu virus rose to eight in 2015 after a death case for a five-year-old boy in Upper Egypt’s governorate of Asyut was reported on 23 January, according to Ministry of Health. The ministry said a new case was infected with the virus; it was for a 60-year-old woman in the Delta governorate of Gharbia.Cairo Post Hong Kong Poultry Market Reopens
HONG KONG - Surveillance and monitoring of local chicken farms have been stepped up but no H7 viruses were detected in samples taken from the local chicken farms in Hong Kong. The Cheung Sha Wan wholesale poultry market resumed trading on 22 January 2015. OIE Third Strain of Avian Flu Found in Washington State Wild Duck
US - Washington State agricultural officials say a new third strain of avian flu has been found in a wild duck in Whatcom County. Agriculture Department spokesman, Hector Castro, said the new H5N1 strain was confirmed in a green-winged teal killed by a hunter near Sumas.Komo News
Friday, January 23, 2015 Seven Nigerian States Report Bird Flu Outbreaks
NIGERIA - Highly pathogenic avian influenza has spread to seven states and affected 140,000 birds, according to a report today. The H5N1 virus strain has been identified as the cause.ThePoultrySite News Desk H7N9 Sickens Three More in China
CHINA - China has reported three more H7N9 avian flu infections, two in Zhejiang province and one in Guangdong province, according to an analysis of Chinese state media report and a provincial health department report by FluTrackers, an infectious disease news message board.CIDRAP Egypt's Bird Flu Death Toll Rises to Six in 2015
EGYPT - A 36-year-old woman died of H5N1 avian flu in Cairo on 21 January, marking the sixth death in the country from the disease in 2015, the Health Ministry announced. So far, the ministry reported 21 bird flu cases diagnosed this year. They include eight cases which have been treated, seven undergoing treatment and six deaths, Youm7 reported.Cairo Post Bird Flu Hits Zoo Birds in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany
GERMANY - Four chickens died at a zoo in Anklam in the region of Vorpommern-Greifswald on 20 January. They were among a group of 98 birds of six species (with geese, ducks, pigeons, psittacides and quails) kept for non-commercial purposes. The H5N8 virus has been identified and 47 of the birds have been destroyed.World Organisation for Animal Health
Thursday, January 22, 2015 Taiwanese Goose Industry Hit by Tidal Wave of High-path Avian Flu
TAIWAN - More than 260,000 birds - predominantly geese - have been involved in 61 new outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza of three different H5 virus subtypes reported by the national veterinary authority in one day.ThePoultrySite News Desk Avian Flu Hits Turkeys in Palestine's West Bank
PALESTINIAN TERRITORY - A farmer in the West Bank culled his two turkey flocks last week on suspicion of high-path avian flu, which has since been confirmed as an H5 subtype.ThePoultrySite News Desk Avian Flu Spreads to New Nigerian States
NIGERIA - Poultry mortalities from highly pathogenic avian influenza have been reported in the states of Ogun, Delta, Edo and Rivers. Farmers are being urged to raise biosecurity and consumers are warned only to buy poultry from reliable sources.ThePoultrySite News Desk Port Angeles Quarantined after Flock Found with Avian Flu
US - A second city in Washington state, Port Angeles, is under quarantine while state and federal officials make sure a highly contagious strain of avian influenza (H5N2) has not spread.Tri-City Herald
The state Department of Agriculture issued the quarantine on 21 January for six miles around a property between Port Angeles and Sequim after a backyard flock contracted the flu, which is deadly to birds but not contagious to humans.
The 118 birds in the Port Angeles flock of chickens, geese and ducks were euthanised on 18 January as part of efforts to control the disease.
(aka bird flu, avian flu) is caused by a type of influenza virus that is hosted by birds, but may infect several species of mammals. It was first identified in Italy in the early 1900s and is now known to exist worldwide. A strain of the H5N1-type of avian influenza virus that emerged in 1997 has been identified as the most likely source of a future influenza pandemic.
Strains of avian influenza virus may infect various types of animals, including birds, pigs, horses, seals, whales and humans. However, wild fowl act as natural asymptomatic carriers, spreading it to more susceptible domestic stocks. Avian influenza virus spreads in the air and in manure and there is no evidence that the virus can survive in well cooked meat.
How to Recognise Avian Influenza
What to look for
- Ruffled feathers
- Soft-shelled eggs
- Depression and droopiness
- Sudden drop in egg production
- Loss of appetite
- Cyanosis (purplish-blue coloring) of wattles and comb
- Edema and swelling of head, eyelids, comb, wattles, and hocks
- Green diarrhoea
- Blood-tinged discharge from nostrils
- Incoordination, including loss of ability to walk and stand
- Pin-point hemorrhages (most easily seen on the feet and shanks)
- Respiratory distress
- Increased death losses in a flock
- Sudden death
- Nasal discharges
For more detail in avian influenza in poultry click here
Poultry Vaccination as a strategy for controlling AI in commercial birds
Outbreaks of avian influenza in the poultry industry cause devastating economic losses and is generally controlled through extensive culling of infected birds. Alternative strategies also use vaccination as a supplementary control measure during avian influenza outbreaks.
Advantages of Vaccination
For more information on poultry vaccination see:
- Vaccination reduces susceptibility to infection.
- A higher dose of virus is necessary to infect the vaccinated birds.
- Vaccinated birds shed less virus.
- Decreased contamination of the environment.
- Decreased risk of human infection
- Used strategically vaccination compliments a stamping out strategy by slowing/stopping the spread of the virus
Avian Influenza (Fowl Plague) is a potentially devastating disease, predominantly of chickens and turkeys, although the virus can also affect game birds (pheasants, partridge and quail), ratites (ostrich and emu), psittacine and passerine birds.
Avian Influenza is caused by an orthomyxovirus, or influenza virus and can survive for considerable lengths of time outside of the host and birds are infected through contact with other birds, mechanical vectors such as vehicles and equipment and personnel travelling between farms, markets and abattoirs.
Precautionary requirements include cleaning and disinfection of premises and the establishment of a Biosecurity barrier to help prevent spread of disease is essential.
For more information on biosecurity see the links below