All premises with poultry in a 10-km (6.2-mile) zone and all flocks epidemiologically linked to the affected premises have completed multiple rounds of avian influenza testing and were found negative for avian influenza; cleaning and disinfection (C&D) on affected premises is complete; all environmental sampling and testing for avian influenza virus post C&D completion were negative for avian influenza virus; the index premises was released from quarantine on 10 July 2014 and the owner of the index premises will restock and conduct surveillance according to National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) guidance.
The boy, from Shanghai, was first diagnosed as having H7N9 avian flu on 31 March 2013, after he had a high fever, cough, nasal drainage, and tonsilitis. He had been exposed to poultry.
Phylogenetic analysis revealed a distinct H7N9 subtype, with more avian-like properties and fewer mammalian-adapting mutations than other known human 2013 H7N9 subtypes. Researchers described its neuraminidase gene as "waterfowl-like" and said most of its internal genes are more closely related to avian H9N2 subtypes isolated in 2011-12 than to other more recently emerged H7N9 types.
A total of 41 samples tested positive for H7: 39 were serum samples (1 from a farm in Guangdong Province, 29 from live bird market(s) and nine from free-ranging household(s) in Shanghai City); two were virological samples collected from chickens in two markets in Henan Province.
Though the number of human infections from H7N9 have tailed off in the summer, health officials have said they expect sporadic human infections to continue, because the virus is still circulating in poultry. The man's illness pushes the overall number of human infections from the virus to 452, according to FluTrackers.
There were two outbreaks in poultry in December 2013 and the event is now described as 'resolved'.
Since the last update on 5 May 2014, two laboratory-confirmed human cases of influenza A(H5N1) virus infection were reported to WHO; one from Indonesia in a 33-year-old man from DKI Jakarta and the other from Egypt in a 34-year-old man from Menia governorate. This is not unexpected as influenza A(H5N1) viruses are known to be circulating in poultry in these areas in both countries.
This report also covers 'Human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China' (monitored by WHO but reported separately) and 'Outbreaks in animals with avian influenza viruses with potential public health impacts'.
These countries include China, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Philippines and Viet Nam, a group of scientists at the Free University of Brussels, the Kenya-based International Livestock Research Institute, Oxford University, and the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention said in a recent study on the spread of the H7N9 virus.
Areas at the highest risk of the H7N9 epidemic are those located in China’s eastern and southeastern coastal localities, the Bengal region – including Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal – the upstream area of the Hong (Red) and Mekong Rivers in Viet Nam, and many remote and isolated places in Indonesia and the Philippines.
Details of the cases are as follows:
The patient reported on 22 April is a 44-year-old woman from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China, who travelled to Taipei with a 33-member tourist group. She was ill on 12 April and had been to a local hospital in Nanjing. The patient had an underlying medical condition. Despite general weakness and poor appetite, she travelled to Taipei with the group on 17 April. She was admitted to hospital in Taipei on 19 April and subsequently transferred to a medical centre on 20 April. She was laboratory confirmed on 22 April. Within one week before disease onset she had purchased a slaughtered chicken at a wet market and cooked in Mainland China.
Taipei CDC obtained the list of the other 32 tour members on 22 April; the tour group returned to its origin on 24 April. As of 23 April, one member developed fever.
The patient reported on 25 April is a previously healthy 39 year-old man who frequently travels across the Taiwan Strait. He became ill on 19 April and was hospitalised on 23 April. He was laboratory confirmed on 25 April. The patient visited Beijing and Jiangsu from 31 March to 19 April. He denied exposure to poultry or wet markets while in Mainland China.
Details of the cases are as follows: on 22 April, a 44-year-old woman from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China, who travelled to Taipei with a 33-member tourist group reported she was ill on 12 April and had been to a local hospital in Nanjing. The patient had an underlying medical condition. Despite general weakness and poor appetite, she travelled to Taipei with the group on 17 April. She was admitted to hospital in Taipei on 19 April and subsequently transferred to a medical centre on 20 April. She was laboratory confirmed on 22 April. One week before disease onset, she had purchased a slaughtered chicken at a wet market and cooked in Mainland China.
Taipei CDC obtained the list of the other 32 tour members on 22 April; the tour group returned to its origin on 24 April.
As of 23 April, one member developed fever. The patient reported on 25 April is a previously healthy 39-year-old man who frequently travels across the Taiwan Strait. He became ill on 19 April and was hospitalised on 23 April. He was laboratory confirmed on 25 April. The patient visited Beijing and Jiangsu from 31 March to 19 April. He denied exposure to poultry or wet markets while in Mainland China.
There was one outbreak of low-pathogenic H5N1 in a free-range layer flock in Lower Saxony in March 2014.
The patient is a 51-year-old male from Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province. He had onset of symptoms on 2 June, was admitted to hospital on 6 June, and is currently in a severe condition. The patient has a history of exposure to live poultry.
(aka bird flu, avian flu) is caused by a type of influenza virus that is hosted by birds, but may infect several species of mammals. It was first identified in Italy in the early 1900s and is now known to exist worldwide. A strain of the H5N1-type of avian influenza virus that emerged in 1997 has been identified as the most likely source of a future influenza pandemic. Strains of avian influenza virus may infect various types of animals, including birds, pigs, horses, seals, whales and humans. However, wild fowl act as natural asymptomatic carriers, spreading it to more susceptible domestic stocks. Avian influenza virus spreads in the air and in manure and there is no evidence that the virus can survive in well cooked meat.
What to look for
- Ruffled feathers
- Soft-shelled eggs
- Depression and droopiness
- Sudden drop in egg production
- Loss of appetite
- Cyanosis (purplish-blue coloring) of wattles and comb
- Edema and swelling of head, eyelids, comb, wattles, and hocks
- Green diarrhoea
- Blood-tinged discharge from nostrils
- Incoordination, including loss of ability to walk and stand
- Pin-point hemorrhages (most easily seen on the feet and shanks)
- Respiratory distress
- Increased death losses in a flock
- Sudden death
- Nasal discharges
Poultry Vaccination as a strategy for controlling AI in commercial birds
Outbreaks of avian influenza in the poultry industry cause devastating economic losses and is generally controlled through extensive culling of infected birds. Alternative strategies also use vaccination as a supplementary control measure during avian influenza outbreaks.. Advantages of Vaccination
- Vaccination reduces susceptibility to infection.
- A higher dose of virus is necessary to infect the vaccinated birds.
- Vaccinated birds shed less virus.
- Decreased contamination of the environment.
- Decreased risk of human infection
- Used strategically vaccination compliments a stamping out strategy by slowing/stopping the spread of the virus
- Vaccination as Part of an Avian Influenza Control Strategy
- VECTORMUNE® HVT AIV
Avian Influenza (Fowl Plague) is a potentially devastating disease, predominantly of chickens and turkeys, although the virus can also affect game birds (pheasants, partridge and quail), ratites (ostrich and emu), psittacine and passerine birds.
Avian Influenza is caused by an orthomyxovirus, or influenza virus and can survive for considerable lengths of time outside of the host and birds are infected through contact with other birds, mechanical vectors such as vehicles and equipment and personnel travelling between farms, markets and abattoirs.
Precautionary requirements include cleaning and disinfection of premises and the establishment of a Biosecurity barrier to help prevent spread of disease is essential.
For more information on biosecurity see the links below
- Efficacy of rHVT-AI Vector Vaccine in Broilers with Passive Immunity Against Challenge with Two Antigenically Divergent Egyptian Clade 2.2.1 HPAI H5N1 Strains
- Efficacy of a Recombinant HVT-H5 Vaccine Against Challenge with Two Genetically Divergent Indonesian HPAI H5N1 Strains
- OIE - HPAI Situation Reports
- Avian Influenza WHO information
- Avian Influenza CDC information
- Bird flu timelines Recombinetics
- About Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza