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ThePoultrySite Newsletter - 1 December 2011

ThePoultrySite Weekly Newsletter
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Thursday 1st December 2011
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Welcome to this week's newsletter

Editorial – Antibiotic Use in Agriculture under Pressure

Following the recent announcement that the European Commission is moving to cut the use of antibiotics in agriculture, the German Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection has announced a package of measures to gain better control of the use of antibiotics in animal husbandry. In the UK, antibiotic use is reported to be on the rise again after a prolonged period of decline but the report stresses that the use of antimicrobials per tonne of feed has risen only slightly.

Researchers in the US have reported that antibiotics in feed encourage gene exchange between gut bacteria, which may lead to the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR).

A study published this week in the online journal, mBio® shows that adding antibiotics to pig feed causes microorganisms in the guts of these animals to start sharing genes that could spread antibiotic resistance.

The study by Heather Allen and her colleagues at the USDA National Animal Disease Center (NaDC) in Ames, Iowa, adds to our knowledge about what happens to the microorganisms that populate animal digestive tracts when they are exposed to low but long-term levels of antibiotics. The researchers studied how two in-feed antibiotic formulations affect prophages, segments of DNA found in bacteria that can encode antibiotic resistance genes and other genes that bacteria may use.

Prophages can cut themselves out of the larger chromosome of bacterial DNA in a process called induction, then replicate and package themselves as viruses. These viruses explode the cell from the inside then move on to infect other organisms and deliver their genes.

Dr Allen, who is lead author on the study, says when pigs were fed antibiotics, the numbers of antibiotic resistance genes carried by the phages remained steady but the microorganisms still reacted to the presence of antibiotics. Prophages underwent a significant increase in induction when exposed to antibiotics, indicating that medicating the animals led to increased movement of prophage genes among gut bacteria.

She said: "Induction of the prophages is showing us that antibiotics are stimulating gene transfer. This is significant because phages have previously been shown to carry bacterial fitness genes such as antibiotic resistance genes."

Studies that explore the impacts of in-feed antibiotics most often focus on the bacterial residents of the gut, according to Dr Allen but phages and other viruses move a significant amount of genetic information around the community. This makes changes in prophage induction an important collateral effect of antibiotic treatment, she says. Resistance genes are the unit of currency among microbes experiencing the duress of an antibiotic, so following the movement of genes is arguably more important than following certain changes in bacterial communities. And if bacteria in humans acquire resistance genes from animals, there can be serious health consequences.

Finally, we return to the coming ban on conventional battery cages in the EU. Free-range egg producers in the UK are clearly feeling the pressure of margins squeezed by the need to invest in new housing, high feed prices and the threat of their product becoming viewed as a commodity.

Add to that concerns of eggs from battery cages coming into the country – in shell or as egg products – and it is no surprise that the mood at their recent association meeting was somewhat downbeat. They should gain some comfort from the latest survey of the country's consumers, 80 per cent of whom said they want action to stop eggs laid by hens in illegal barren battery cages coming into the UK.

Jackie Linden



* This Week's Feature Articles

We have 12 new features this week:

Impacts on Health of Poultry and Humans of the EU Ban on Battery Cages
With the imminent ban on conventional battery cages for laying hens in the European Union, a recent conference examined the likely impacts of alternative housing systems for laying hens and broilers on both poultry and human health issues. Jackie Linden, senior editor of ThePoultrySite, reports.
GLOBAL POULTRY TRENDS - Africa to Produce 4MT of Poultry in 2011
Africa is forecast to produce four million tonnes of chicken meat in 2011, according to seasoned industry watcher, Terry Evans, as he turns his attention to the trends in the broiler industries of Africa and Oceania. In Australia and New Zealand, annual growth in output is expected to continue but to be modest.
Role of Infectious Challenges in Nutritional Diseases
Infectious diseases result in important changes in nutrient absorption, metabolism and excretion, as well as exacerbating non-infectious diseases, according to Professor Kirk C. Klasing of the University of California, Davis.
Relationship Between the Incidence of Ascites and Ventilation in Broiler Chickens
Researchers at Iran's Islamic Azad University observed fewer problems with ascites and respiratory diseases in broilers after they improved the ventilation in seven commercial poultry houses.
Risks for Animal and Public Health Related to the Presence of Alternaria Toxins in Feed and Food
Fungi in the family, Alternaria, produce mycotoxins in a range of plants that include cereals and oilseeds. Following a study of the possible adverse effects of Alternaria mycotoxins on the health of humans, farm animals and pets, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was unable to rule out the possibility of some types of toxin causing problems in chickens, the only species of farm animals for which some toxicity data suitable for risk assessment exist.
GB Emerging Threats Report - Avian Diseases - July to September (Q3) 2011
An outbreak of encephalitic listeriosis in red-legged partridges, rodenticide toxicity and an unusual intracellular infection in ducks and a continuing investigation into eggshell problems in a free-range layer flock are among the highlights of this latest report from the AHVLA - previously known as the Quarterly Surveillance Report from the VLA.
Poultry Meat - a Sustainable EU Market
Poultry meat looks likely to remain a popular meat with consumers and it has a low environmental impact compared with other meats but the supply to the EU will be met increasingly by imports from outside the region, according to the Association of Poultry Processors and Poultry Trade in the EU Countries, a.v.e.c., in its 2011 Annual Report.
Your Breeder Flock on Mycotoxins
The importance of mycotoxin risk management for breeder flocks is explained by Biomin.
Uniform Eggs are Laid by Uniform Hens
An outline of the factors contributing to the development of a uniform flock that will produce uniform eggs from Maciej Kolanczyk of Pas Reform.
A Salmonella Control Programme
A combination of all measurements taken to reduce the risk of Salmonella introduction and spread, explained by Lieven Dambre, Product Manager for CID Lines.
Canadian Poultry and Egg Statistics - July to September 2011
By Statistics Canada - This publication provides data on the production, supply and disposition and value of Canadian poultry meat and eggs for the third quarter of 2011, and complete data for 2010.
UK Poultry and Poultry Meat Statistics - November 2011
By Defra. This monthly publication combines the UK Hatcheries Survey and Poultry Slaughterhouse Survey results together with other Defra statistics, and trade data. It includes data to October 2011.
Cobb 700 - The new standard in high yield
* Company News

Seminar for Greek & Cypriot Producers in Edinburgh
SCOTLAND, UK - KEGOagri, exclusive distributor for the broiler breeders Ross 308 for Greece and Cyprus, hosted a four-day informational seminar in Scotland, in cooperation with Aviagen.
Big Dutchman Annual Sales Conference in Bali
BALI, INDONESIA - Big Dutchman Asia brought together its Asia Pacific sales team and experts from various divisions of the company for its annual sales conference on the beautiful island of Bali.
Novus CEO Addresses World Ag Forum
GLOBAL - Novus International will present a landmark keynote presentation at the seventh biennial World Agricultural Forum's Congress in Brussels this week.
AXTRA XAP Counters Rising Broiler Feed Costs
UK - Axtra® XAP is the new generation feed enzyme product that brings radical feed cost saving opportunities to the broiler industry.
* Global Poultry Industry News

   Egypt

 » BIRD FLU: Egyptian Woman Admitted to Hospital

   Ireland

 » Govt Urged To Address Farmer Age Imbalance
 » IFA Urges Extension of Pig & Poultry COOL Rules

Evonik - A fresh perspective on our Masterpieces
   European Union

 » New Insight into Marek's Disease Virus
 » EU Ag Products Improved Access to Norway
 » Turkey Sales to Take off for Moy Park at Christmas
 » Adapting in an Evolving (Egg) Market
 » 2015 Call for EU Action on Antimicrobial Use

   United Kingdom

 » Antibiotic Sales Increase Slightly
 » South West Farmers Urged to Improve Slurry Storage
 » £100M+ Investment to Protect UK Food Security
 » Tulip Planning on Expanding in the UK
 » Pig & Poultry Fair Leads the Way
 » Junior Minister Attacks the CAP
 » UK Poultry Industry Downbeat
 » Research Shows Ban on Illegal Eggs Wanted
 » Lobbying Averts Crisis for Organic Poultry

Aviagen, Ross Breeders, Arbor Acres, Nicholas Turkeys, L.I.R.
   General

 » Maggots Nurtured as Feed Protein Alternative
 » Africa Nearing Epidemic of Deadly Cassava Virus
 » CPF Aims to Control China & Viet Nam Businesses
 » NZ to Canada: Get Rid of Poultry & Dairy Quotas
 » HSI: Role of Animal Agriculture in GHG Emissions
 » Asian Meat Consumption Performing Strongly
 » International Egg and Poultry Review: Africa

   Germany

 » Risk Factors for Salmonella and Campylobacter
 » EuroTier 2012: Top Event for Agriculture

   United States

 » FDA Unmoved by Antibiotic Ban Pleas, Evidence
 » RTC Weight Down Two Per Cent from Last Year
 » Fourth Week of January Proclaimed Poultry Week
 » Hatchery-Breeder Clinic Returns to IPE 2012
 » Salmonella Outbreak Worse than Expected
 » More Sick in US Salmonella Outbreak
 » CME: Lowest Monthly Flock Figure Since 1996
 » 2012: Corn, Soybean Demand & Acreage Prospects
 » Hormel Foods Distributes Annual Profit Sharing
 » Discrimination Complaint Filed against Cargill
 » Weekly US Broiler Hatchery Report
 » US Egg Products Report - November 2011
 » Mechanism Found for AMR Development

Vectormune HVT NDV
   Brazil

 » Brazilian Poultry Exports Up
 » WPC 2012 Early Bird Registration Extended

   India

 » Slack Demand Keeping Poultry Products Flat
 » Suguna Builds up Branded Products

   Spain

 » Ventilation Rate Can be Set by CO2 Balance

   Switzerland

 » Influence of Nest-floor Slope on Choice of Layers

   Pakistan

 » Modern Poultry & Dairy Farms to be Set Up

DSM Vitamin News
   Canada

 » BC Poultry Industry Warned to Halt Antibiotic Use
 » Grand River Foods Sells Poultry Processing Division
 » Positive Outlook For Crop, Meat & Dairy Producers

   Hong Kong

 » Chicken Supplier to Explore Acquisition-Led Growth

   Kuwait

 » Kuwait Lifts Bans on Russian Poultry & Eggs

   Japan

 » Wheat Binge Eyed as Glut Undercuts Corn Price

   Ghana

 » High Maize Cost Alarms Ghana's Poultry Farmers

   Russian Federation

 » Cherkizovo Opens New Poultry Plant

   Denmark

 » Rose Poultry Managing Director Dies

   China

 » Anhui Taiyang Poultry Reports Profits Rise



That's all for this week!

Ed.
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