USDA GAIN: Poultry and Products
24 September 2012
China’s broiler production in 2013 is forecast at 14.1 MMT, a three percent increase from the revised 2012
estimate because of continued demand for cheaper meat protein. The pace of growth for broiler production seems
to be slowing due to higher feed prices.
With tight corn supplies in the United States (the lead supplier to China) and recent outbreaks of armyworms in China’s key corn producing areas in North and Northeast China, prices for domestic and foreign corn supplies are expected to be considerably higher in 2012 and 2013. Corn accounts for about 65-70 percent of China’s broiler feed; but with higher corn prices, many feed plants in China are changing feed ingredients such as substituting wheat for corn. Despite the possibility of higher wheat demand and prices, China’s available wheat stocks are cheaper than domestic corn prices and may help relax feed cost burdens. Changing ingredients may slightly impact slaughter weight, but the growth for broiler production in 2013 is expected to be higher than other meat production. China’s broiler industry is deemed to be more standardized and industrialized than other meat industries.
There are two types of broiler meats, western-bred broilers (white-feathered) and local-bred (yellow feathered). Western-bred broilers are produced in Northern China (north of the Yangtze River) and account for about 65 percent of China’s total broiler meat production. Thirty-five western-bred broiler companies produce 60 percent of these supplies. These large companies have their own feed mills and transportation to purchase and pickup corn directly from farmers. Some of them also contract arable land from local governments to produce corn. Foreign investment mainly lies in the western-bred sector. A well-known U.S. company reportedly invested $250 million to build a full-scale project in Anhui Province, including feed processing, hatching, bird raising and processing. This project is expected to start in mid-2013 with a broiler production scale estimated at 65 million birds a year.
Local-bred broilers are mainly produced in Southern China (south of the Yangtze River). Compared to westernbred birds, these birds are smaller in weight and have a longer growing period because they’re raised in fields or gardens without a standardized “one-in and one-out” operation.
Change in 2012 PSD table:
FAS/Beijing revised its 2012 production estimate downward by 30,000 MT to 13.7 MMT, the result of lower slaughter weights and early bird slaughters during the heavy floods in July and August in key producing provinces such as Shandong.
China’s consumption in 2013 is forecast to increase by three percent above the revised 2012 figure to 13.95 MMT because of strong demand for cheaper meat protein.
Change in 2012 PSD table:
Post revised its 2012 consumption estimate upward by 22,000 MT to 13.54 MMT attributed to additional imports and fewer exports. Chinese consumers began to purchase more broiler meats than red meats in July and August when prices for broiler meats were $2,657 per ton compared to the average pork price of $3,616 per ton. The significant price difference prompted low-income consumers to shift to cheaper broiler meats. Overall, consumers are becoming more price-sensitive as China’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth dropped from 9.2 percent in 2011 to 7.6 percent in the second quarter of 2012. This is the first time China’s GDP dropped below eight percent in the last 12 quarters.
Despite rising domestic production in 2013, domestic demand for cheaper imported broiler meat will support a four percent increase over the revised estimate of 250,000 MT in imports.
Change in 2012 PSD table:
FAS/Beijing revised its 2012 import estimate upward by 7,000 MT to 240,000 MT based on larger-than-expected shipments from the United States. When China implemented its anti-dumping (AD) and countervailing (CV) measures against U.S. broilers in 2010, export unit prices from South American countries climbed sharply in 2011, for instance, Brazil by 24 percent, Argentina 9 percent, and Chile 31 percent. With higher prices offered by South American countries, some U.S. prices are competitive, and some Chinese traders are willing to pay the AD and CV tariffs to bring in higher quality U.S. broiler meats.
Broiler exports in 2013 are forecast to remain flat at 400,000 MT. China’s exports to Japan, its largest export market, are expected to continue upward at a pace of five percent in both 2012 and 2013. Yet, increased exports to Japan will be offset by reduced exports to Hong Kong, China’s second largest export market, mainly attributed to Brazilian competitive export prices of Brazilian product to Hong Kong. Moreover, China’s exports to Malaysia, a traditional export market, will be strongly challenged by less expensive export prices from Thailand to Malaysia.
1. China’s General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) and USDA agreed to use an Electronic Trade Document Exchange System (e-TDE) starting June 1, 2012 to prenotify U.S. export health certificates. This system is used by more than 80 percent of U.S. exporting plants or companies.
2. AQSIQ will no longer accept transshipments through Hong Kong or Vietnam if the shipments were originally destined to Hong Kong or Vietnam because of food safety concern over different standards.
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