Proventricular Worms

calendar icon 22 March 2019
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Dispharynx, Tetrameres and Cyrnea are nematodes, spiruroid worm parasites of poultry and game birds. They are found in the mucosa of crop and proventriculus causing mainly inapparent infections. Infection is by the oral route on exposure to the intermediate hosts, including crustaceans, grasshoppers and cockroaches.


  • Anaemia.
  • Diarrhoea.
  • Emaciation in heavily infected young chicks (Tetrameres).

Post-mortem lesions

  • Inflammation, ulceration, haemorrhage, necrosis, and thickening of mucosa of proventriculus.


Macroscopic examination of lesions, identification of worms.


Not usually required.


Prevention of access to intermediate hosts.

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