A new study into the role of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 (Ecobiol®) in reduced protein diets helps shed light on necrotic enteritis disease

Necrotic enteritis disease is estimated to cost the global poultry industry $6 billion annually (Wade and Keyburn, 2015).
calendar icon 13 October 2020
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Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 is a bacterium with the ability to produce amylases to enhance starch digestion and favor the proliferation of lactic acid bacteria (Diaz, 2007), which could partially explain the higher lactic acid with probiotic supplementation but not with protein reduction alone (Figure 3). Both lactate and acetate produced by members of the Bifidobacterium spp. can cross-feed other families of bacteria capable of using lactate to produce butyrate such as Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae (Onrust et al., 2015; Moens et al., 2017). Since the supplementation with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 increased both Bifidobacterium and Ruminococcacus spp. (Figure 2) we can assume a cooperative benefit of this cross-feeding mechanism and, thus, resulting in high production of cecal, acetate and butyrate (Figure 3). Butyrate and acetate are known to have a positive effect on energy metabolism and gut health (Topping and Clifton, 2001) and both supplementation of the probiotic and dietary protein reduction enhanced the production of these two volatile fatty acids. In addition, butyrate plays a big role in the control of C. perfringens (Timbermont et al., 2010) and this explains the reduction observed in our study with the combination of reduced dietary protein and inclusion of probiotic (Figure 2).

Conclusion

The supplementation of probiotic product based on Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 promoted performance and contributed to restore the performance of broiler receiving reduced dietary protein under necrotic enteritis challenge while showing a significant decrease of cecal C. perfringens. These benefits can be attributed to the Increase in cecal Bifidobacterium and Ruminococcus spp. as well as the production of acetate, lactate and butyrate which potentially indicate a healthier gut.

For more details consult the full paper here:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405654520300901

Figure 1: Performance parameters evaluated in broiler chickens fed two levels of protein with or without probiotic (B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940) supplementation under necrotic challenge condition.
Figure 1: Performance parameters evaluated in broiler chickens fed two levels of protein with or without probiotic (B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940) supplementation under necrotic challenge condition.

The improvement in the performance could be partially explained by the decrease in the disturbance of the bacteria community in the cecum. The effect of the treatment for the main bacterial groups evaluated are presented in Figure 2. There was an interaction between dietary protein and probiotic supplementation for C. perfringens, meaning that the combination of reduced dietary protein and probiotic supplementation provided the lowest C. perfringens content. Probiotic alone resulted in higher cecal content of Bifidobacterium and Ruminococcus spp., while dietary protein alone was not able to affect cecal bacteria population.

Figure 2: Cecal bacterial content of broiler chickens fed two levels of protein with or without probiotic (B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940) under necrotic enteritis condition.
Figure 2: Cecal bacterial content of broiler chickens fed two levels of protein with or without probiotic (B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940) under necrotic enteritis condition.

Certain metabolites produced by these bacterial communities, such as the fatty acids contributes to enhance gut development. Therefore, the volatile fatty acid content in cecum was quantified and the results are presented in Figure 3. No interaction was observed between dietary protein and probiotic supplementation for the volatile fatty acids. Broilers fed diets with probiotic presented higher cecal content of acetate, lactate and butyrate, whereas the reduction in dietary protein lead to higher cecal content of acetate and butyrate but lactate was reduced.

Figure 3: Volatile fatty acid content of broiler chickens fed two levels of protein with or without probiotic (B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940) under necrotic enteritis challenge.
Figure 3: Volatile fatty acid content of broiler chickens fed two levels of protein with or without probiotic (B. amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940) under necrotic enteritis challenge.

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 is a bacterium with the ability to produce amylases to enhance starch digestion and favor the proliferation of lactic acid bacteria (Diaz, 2007), which could partially explain the higher lactic acid with probiotic supplementation but not with protein reduction alone (Figure 3). Both lactate and acetate produced by members of the Bifidobacterium spp. can cross-feed other families of bacteria capable of using lactate to produce butyrate such as Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae (Onrust et al., 2015; Moens et al., 2017). Since the supplementation with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 increased both Bifidobacterium and Ruminococcacus spp. (Figure 2) we can assume a cooperative benefit of this cross-feeding mechanism and, thus, resulting in high production of cecal, acetate and butyrate (Figure 3). Butyrate and acetate are known to have a positive effect on energy metabolism and gut health (Topping and Clifton, 2001) and both supplementation of the probiotic and dietary protein reduction enhanced the production of these two volatile fatty acids. In addition, butyrate plays a big role in the control of C. perfringens (Timbermont et al., 2010) and this explains the reduction observed in our study with the combination of reduced dietary protein and inclusion of probiotic (Figure 2).

Conclusion

The supplementation of probiotic product based on Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 promoted performance and contributed to restore the performance of broiler receiving reduced dietary protein under necrotic enteritis challenge while showing a significant decrease of cecal C. perfringens. These benefits can be attributed to the Increase in cecal Bifidobacterium and Ruminococcus spp. as well as the production of acetate, lactate and butyrate which potentially indicate a healthier gut.

For more details consult the full paper here:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405654520300901

Juliano Cesar De Paula Dorigam

Research Manager in Poultry Nutrition, Animal Nutrition, at Evonik
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